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  • OMEGA-3 ESSENTIAL FATS REMAIN "ESSENTIAL" – A REBUTTAL FROM OMNS

    Fred Liers PhD omega-3 essential fats plus e EFA formulaOmega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) are critically important for health. That is the reason we at HPDI include them in our foundational supplements system in the form of our Essential Fats Plus E formula. Essential Fats Plus E provides a balanced ratio of 4:1 omega-3 EPA to omega-6 GLA fatty acids proven to optimally support health.

    As important as Omega-3 fats are in good health, various studies conclude they are of little value. In order to help clarity the fallacies found in such studies, this month we re-print the recent article "Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease" from the Orthomolecular News Service (OMNS).

    BACKGROUND

    Essential fats including Omega-3 and Omega-6 are so important to health that we consider them as foundational or "core" to basic nutrition as multivitamins, antioxidants/vitamin C formulas, and high-RNA superfoods, like Rejuvenate! Plus.

    Many of today's health problems relate to deficiencies in Omega-3 essential fatty acids rather than overabundance of it. It makes sense for everyone to supplement their diets with at least a minimum amount of essential fats. This is addition to consuming foods high in Omega-3 (and Omega-6) essential fats, including leafy greens, nuts, seeds, and seed oils. Also, small amounts of wild-caught fish from clean waters. Preferably these fish would come from low on the food chain, such as sardines, herring, or young mackerel, for example.

    In December 2107, my father Hank Liers, PhD, wrote "The Truth about Essential Fatty Acids." In his article, he delves into detail about why essential fatty acids are critical for health.

    The diagram below from Dr. Hank's article shows in detail the pathways for the production and use of fatty acids in the body. In the figure the metabolic pathways (running left to right) for four fatty acids types are shown (top - Omega-3, second - Omega-6, third - Omega-9, bottom - Omega-7). Notice that only the omega-3 and omega-6 oils are considered to be essential fatty acids because they cannot be made in the body. This means they must come from food.

    omega-3 fats omega-6 fats

    Furthermore, an additional diagram from Dr. Hank's article shown below provides details of the omega-6 and omega-3 pathways. Pathway specifics indicate key eicosanoids (series 1 prostaglandins [anti-inflammatory], series 2 prostaglandins [pro-inflammatory], and series 3 prostaglandins [anti-inflammatory]), oil sources, and important nutrient cofactors that are needed for the reactions to take place.

    omega-3 fats omega-6 fats

    In particular, Dr. Hank discusses how superior benefits to health result from a balanced 4:1 ratio between Omega-3 eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) fatty acids and Omega-6 gamma linoleic acid (GLA).

    Below we list some of the functions and benefits obtained when by diet or supplementation the correct ratios and amounts of essential fatty acids are consumed.

    • Regulate steroid production and hormone synthesis
    • Regulate pressure in the eyes, joints, and blood vessels
    • Regulate response to pain, inflammation, and swelling
    • Mediate Immune Response
    • Regulate bodily secretions and their viscosity
    • Dilate or constrict blood vessels
    • Regulate smooth muscle and autonomic reflexes
    • Are primary constituents of cellular membranes
    • Regulate the rate at which cells divide
    • Necessary for the transport of oxygen from the red blood cells to tissues
    • Necessary for proper kidney function and fluid balance
    • Prevent red blood cells from clumping together
    • Regulate nerve transmission

    Dr. Hank also discusses the fallacy of thinking that supplemental Omega-3 fats alone are sufficient to produce health. That is, despite the relative lack of Omega-3 essential fats and the prevalence of Omega-6 fats in modern diets, it is nevertheless the forms (EPA and GLA)—and the critical 4:1 ratio between them—that makes the difference in how they act synergistically for health. The result of Hank's scientific understanding of essential fatty acids has resulted in his formulation of a balanced EFA product, Essential Fats Plus E.

    Orthomolecular Medicine News Service Article "Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease"

    Regarding the Orthomolecular Medicine News Service article "Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease" (republished below) rebutting the "Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews" which relies on so-called "Evidence Based Medicine" (EBM) to distort truth on Omega-3 essential fatty acids, the fact that Omega-3 fats are under such false attack represents a huge disservice to the public.

    While essential fatty acids may not generate profits for corporations—and in fact may lead to improved health outcomes that threaten the use of chemicals and drugs—essential fats nevertheless remain foundational for health.

    Above we have shown the important reasons Omega-3 fats and other essential fatty acids are scientifically termed "essential." And why people continue taking essential fats, and giving them to their families and children, for supporting health and well-being. Primary among these reasons is that you cannot be healthy without them. Hence, they are essential. Why believe anyone who says otherwise?

    The bottom line: Omega-3 essential fatty acids are critical for health. Supplementing the diet with them is a good idea for nearly everyone. This is especially true because typical diets are proven to be most deficient in Omega-3 among essential fats.

    Below we re-print in full the recent article "Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease" from the Orthomolecular News Service (OMNS) for the benefit of our HPDI blog readers. ~

    ===

    FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
    Orthomolecular Medicine News Service, Aug 6, 2018

    Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease

    Commentary by Damien Downing, MBBS, MSB and Robert G. Smith, PhD

    The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews has just updated its own review: Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease [1]. Here's our take on it.

    Michael Pollan, the brilliant food writer, reckoned you could sum up what to do about nutrition and diets in 7 words; "Eat food, not too much, mostly plants." That sums up both what's best for humans and what's best for the planet.

    We reckon you can sum up what's wrong with evidence-based medicine (EBM) in 10 words; "Evidence is a waste of data; systematic reviews are palimpsests." You can use that as a knife to quickly dissect this study.

    There are many things wrong with this review. Somebody's PR department has spun the review's "no clear evidence of benefit" into "evidence of no benefit" - absence of evidence becoming evidence of absence. And clearly the media were entirely happy to take that one and run with it.

    Systematic reviews are palimpsests

    What's a palimpsest? Back when things got written on vellum, an animal skin, not on paper, you didn't throw it away; you recycled it and wrote over the original. It was called a palimpsest.

    A systematic review gives an opportunity to write over the conclusions of a whole list of papers with your new version of the truth. You do that by the way that you select and exclude them.

    For instance there was a meta-analysis (that's a systematic review with more numbers) in 2005 that concluded that vitamin E supplements significantly increased the risk of death [2]. The way they did that was to rule out any study with less than 10 deaths - when fewer deaths was exactly the outcome they were supposed to be looking for.

    The reason they gave for doing that was "because we anticipated that many small trials did not collect mortality data." We're not buying it; they used it as a trick to enable them to get the negative result they wanted - to over-write the findings of a long list of original studies.

    And here we have authors doing the very same thing in this omega-3 study - and upping the ante slightly. Now the threshold is 50 deaths. Fewer than that and your study is ruled out of the final, supposedly least biased, analysis . . on the grounds that it's more biased.

    We don't know how they could keep a straight face while saying (our interpretation); "The studies with fewer deaths showed more benefit from omega-3s, so we excluded them." At least that's what happened back in 2004 when the first version of this came out.[3]

    But this is the 8th update (we think) and they no longer bother to tell you about what they included or excluded in detail, so we can only assume that if they had changed that exclusion they would have told us.

    The weird thing is that they are allowed to do it. Nutrition researcher Dr. Steve Hickey has shown that in systematic reviews there is generally control for bias in the included studies, but none for bias in the actual review and its authors.[4,5]

    They found not one example of adequate blinding among 100 Cochrane reviews (like this one); they could all be palimpsests. Do we know that they are fake? No, but it doesn't matter: what we do know is that we can't trust them. Nor can we trust this Cochrane review. Things haven't changed since 2004.

    Evidence is a waste of data

    Evidence is what lawyers and courts use to find someone Guilty or Not Guilty, and we all know how that can go wrong. It's a binary system: you're either one or the other. But at least if you're on trial all the evidence should be about you and whether you did the crime.

    In EBM the evidence is all about populations, not about individuals. When a doctor tells you "There's a 1 in 3 chance this treatment will work" he is required to base that on big studies, or even systematic reviews. You don't, and you can't, know what that means for you because very likely you don't fit the population profile.

    As Steve Hickey (again) said, the statistical fallacy underlying all this states that you have one testicle and one ovary - because that's the population average! The authors of this study update started off with about 2100 papers that looked relevant. They then excluded 90 per cent of them for various reasons - some of them good reasons, some not.

    A smarter way to work would be to data-mine them and look for useful information about sub-groups and sub-effects in all the papers. Is there a particular reason omega-3s might work for you and not for others? Perhaps you can't stand fish, or are allergic to them, and so are deficient in omega-3s.

    But the review system doesn't allow it, it insists on overall conclusions (about populations), and that's a colossal waste of data. It also confounds the overall finding of the review - it biases it in fact.

    Here's an example: while most subgroups that made it to the final analysis showed a small reduction in risk from taking omega-3s in one form or another (pills, food, whatever), those who got it from supplemented foods, which we understand means stuff like margarine with added omega-3, showed a 4.3-fold death risk increase!

    The problem here is that the effects of omega-3 fatty acids cannot be studied alone as if they were a drug. What counts are all the other components of the diet that affect a person's health.

    Processed foods and drinks that contain many unhealthy ingredients can't be made healthy by adding small doses of vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids. In fact, many processed foods that contain small doses of vitamins and other essential nutrients are unhealthy because they contain large doses of sugar, salt, and harmful ingredients such as preservatives, dyes, and other non-food items.

    Why lipids are so important

    Part of the problem is that lipids are truly complicated, and not many people, patients, doctors or even scientists, understand them well. You need a good understanding of lipid metabolism to appreciate the difference in metabolism and impact between alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, in food such as oily fish) and extracted oils such as EPA and DHA that are only found at high levels in omega-3 supplements.

    At these levels they are effectively new to nature; nobody, indeed no mammal, was exposed to really high doses of DHA until we invented fish oil supplements [6]. Miss that fact and you miss the difference between having people eat fresh oily fish or just using omega-3 margarine!

    We know from a variety of studies that a diet containing generous portions of green leafy and colorful vegetables and fruits, moderate portions of eggs, fish, and meat, and supplements of adequate doses of essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals) is effective at lowering the risk for cardiovascular disease.

    Adequate doses of both omega-3 (in flax oil, walnuts, fish) and omega-6 (in seed oils such as canola, soybean, peanut) fatty acids are essential for health. Although essential, omega-6 fatty acids are thought to contribute to inflammation throughout the body whereas omega-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory.

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for most body organs including the brain but are found in lower levels than omega-6 fatty acids in most vegetables. Risk for cardiovascular disease can be lowered by adequate doses of vitamins C (3,000-10,000mg/d), D (2,000-10,000 IU/d), E (400-1,200 IU/d), and magnesium (300-600 mg/d) in addition to an excellent diet that includes an adequate dose of omega-3 fatty acids.[7]

    (Dr. Damien Downing is a specialist physician practicing in London, and President of the British Society for Ecological Medicine. Robert G. Smith is a physiologist and Research Associate Professor at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School Of Medicine.)

     

    References:

    1. Abdelhamid, A, Brown TJ, Brainard JS, et al., (2018) Omega 3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 7:CD003177. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30019766
    http://cochranelibrary-wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003177.pub3/abstract

    2. Miller ER, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, et al., (2005) Review Meta-Analysis?: High-Dosage Vitamin E Supplementation May Increase. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(1), pp.37-46. Available at: http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=718049.

    3. Hooper L, Thompson RL, Harrison RA, et al.. (2004) Omega 3 fatty acids for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (4):CD003177. http://cochranelibrary-wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003177.pub2/abstract

    4. Hickey S, Noriega LA. Implications and insights for human adaptive mechatronics from developments in algebraic probability theory, IEEE, UK Workshop on Human Adaptive Mechatronics (HAM), Staffs, 15-16 Jan 2009.

    5. Hickey S, Hickey A, Noriega LA, (2013) The failure of evidence-based medicine? Eur J Pers Centered Healthcare 1: 69-79. http://ubplj.org/index.php/ejpch/article/view/636

    6. Cortie CH, Else, PL, (2012) Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) incorporates into cardiolipin at the expense of linoleic acid (18:2): Analysis and potential implications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13(11): 15447-15463. http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/13/11/15447

    7. Case HS (2017) Orthomolecular Nutrition for Everyone. Turner Publication Co., Nashville, TN. ISBN-13: 978-1681626574

    Nutritional Medicine is Orthomolecular Medicine

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  • HOW TO MAKE KETO COFFEE USING pH ADJUST

    Fred Liers PhD keto coffee pH Adjust alkalinizeWe can all stand to be more alkaline. The majority of people are acidic due to diet and lifestyle. One of the best formulas for creating alkalinity is pH Adjust. pH Adjust is a good-tasting, fluffy white powder that dissolves easily in water, juice, and yes, coffee.

    Shortly after launching pH Adjust as a new product, we began receiving reports from customers that they used pH Adjust in their coffee.

    Why put pH Adjust into coffee? Well, first it is a pleasant and convenient carrier for pH Adjust. Second, and most importantly, coffee is acid-forming in the body. By putting pH Adjust directly into coffee, you both can counteract acidity and simultaneously alkalinize the body.

    My questions: Was coffee creating acid condition in my body? And would putting pH Adjust in my coffee make a a difference? Short answer: Yes.

    I enjoy coffee. I don't drink it all the time. But after hearing customer comments, I decided to try pH Adjust in my coffee. Within a day or two, I noticed my teeth were stronger! This was welcome news.

    In fact, I had been dealing with a few "minor" dental issues, including teeth chipping, enamel wear, and occasional tooth pain. My diet is good and I eat plenty of vegetables and fruits. So how could my teeth be compromised?

    I measured my pH using Hydrion pH paper. It was lower than I thought it would be. Simply put: I was more acidic, more of the time, than I knew. Does acidity weaken teeth? Yes, it does.

    ph Adjust keto coffee pH Adjust alkalinizes the body rapidly. It dissolves easily in water, coffee & most drinks.

    "Bicarbonate reserves" decline as we age. This makes us more acidic because we don't buffer acidity as easily as we did when younger. The body must then draw upon minerals in bones and teeth. Yet, even young people are overly acidic in modern society. Everyone who is acidic stands to benefit from increased pH levels. That means most of us.

    The proof that acidity causes weaker teeth is the fact that pH Adjust immediately stopped my tooth chipping, enamel wear, and pain. Good thing I put pH Adjust into coffee shortly after HPDI introduced it. And thanks to the customers, employees, and friends of HPDI who told me about it.

    ALKALINIZING COFFEE IS HEALTHIER

    Coffee with pH Adjust is healthier than plain coffee because it helps alkalinize the body. Taking pH Adjust (without coffee) accomplishes the same thing. But for those who enjoy coffee, adding pH Adjust is an easy way to alkalinize what can otherwise be an acidifying drink. Who wants acidity? Not me.

    I now use pH Adjust in coffee by directly adding a 1/2 to 1 teaspoon directly into coffee and stirring. I adjust the dose according to how much coffee I drink.

    I also take pH Adjust separately from coffee—usually once or twice daily—about one teaspoon per dose. Taking 1–2 teaspoons total of pH Adjust daily seems to be the right amount. I no longer have issues with my teeth. My bones feel stronger, too.

    If you drink coffee, then adding pH Adjust to make it "pH Adjust coffee" may be helpful to you. It reduces acidity and supports mineral balance. It especially provides good levels of potassium and magnesium, minerals that are required for good health—and that are deficient in most people.

    If coffee is driving acidity in your body, then pH Adjust may be just the thing for you. Putting pH Adjust in your coffee directly means stopping acidity at the source. pH Adjust dissolves easily in coffee (and most other drinks) and does not add a bad taste. In fact, many people, including me, enjoy the gently sweet flavor it imparts.

    pH test paper litmus keto coffee Test pH using Hydrion litmus paper.

    KETOGENIC COFFEE WITH pH ADJUST

    More recently, I discovered the benefits of using organic coconut or MCT oil in coffee with organic pasture butter or ghee. This is based on the concept of Bulletproof coffee popularized by Dave Asprey in his Bulletproof Diet, and it fits well into ketogenic diets. Ketogenic diets are low in carbohydrates, high in fats, and include plenty of high-quality protein.

    I do not follow a ketogenic diet per se. Yet, I consume relatively high amounts of "good" fats (like coconut, olive, and avocado oils) and few simple carbohydrates. I had even added coconut oil, butter, and ghee into my coffee years ago. But I never blended it into an emulsified concoction, nor was pH Adjust available. So this is truly different!

    MAKE KETO COFFEE

    I make ketogenic or "keto" coffee using freshly ground organic coffee, organic coconut oil and/or organic MCT oil, and organic unsalted ghee (or pasture butter). It is important the ingredients be organic and pasture fed when possible.

    I first brew the coffee, then add coconut oil or MCT oil, and butter or ghee. Then I use a hand blender (or regular blender) to mix completely.

    INGREDIENTS

    • 8–16 ounces freshly brewed coffee

    • 1–2 tablespoons of Coconut oil or MCT oil

    • 1 teaspoon–2 tablespoons of unsalted ghee (or unsalted pasture butter)

    • 1/2 tsp–2 teaspoons pH Adjust (to taste, depending on quantity desired)

    Put freshly brewed coffee in a blender or large container (like a mason jar). Add coconut oil/MCT oil,  ghee, and pH Adjust. Blend or use hand blender to mix well. It is important the coffee be hot (or at least warm) in order for the coconut/MCT oil and ghee to mix into it.

    You can add the pH Adjust either before or after you mix or blend the coffee. I personally stir in the pH Adjust manually using a long spoon after I've already mixed the other ingredients. If you add the pH Adjust after mixing the other ingredients, then be sure to stir well.

    Note on amounts: the amounts I list above are suggestions. I often use less coconut or MCT oil, or ghee. That is, some days I use just two teaspoons of coconut/MCT oil, or one rounded teaspoon of ghee. Try using different amounts of ingredients to see what works for you.

    Keto Coffee Ghee Butter Grass-fed ghee is a key ingredient in keto coffee.

    One reason for using less coconut/MCT oil or ghee is because this coffee can be "filling." I am not hungry after I drink it. This is one benefit according to keto coffee experts. In fact, it is recommended that users drink it in the morning before eating. This gives the option of putting off breakfast.

    If I have planned to eat breakfast, then I will often use less coconut or MCT oil. The lower level of satiety from the coffee means I eat breakfast without having already been filled by the keto coffee.

    Make keto coffee any time of day. It is probably best on an empty stomach and definitely not too late into the afternoon—unless you want to be up late (if coffee affects you that way). You can make it early in the day, and then consume it over the course of the morning and afternoon.

    Benefits of Coffee or Keto Coffee with pH Adjust

    • Alkalinizes body — an alkaline state is good for overall health

    • Provides minerals, especially potassium and magnesium

    • May help strengthen teeth and bones

    • Some users report improved digestion

    • Some users report reduced GERD

    • Some users report less Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS)

    • Potassium helps balance out sodium — and is required for cellular health

    • Magnesium is essential for 400 enzyme systems, production of ATP, cardiovascular health, and muscle relaxation

    • Many other benefits!

    There are many other benefits associated with an alkaline state, which is ideally a pH of 7.35–7.45. You can learn more about the benefits of alkalinization from earlier HPDI blog articles (see resources section below), doing web searches, or talking to your health professional.

    If these benefits are not sufficient reason to try using pH Adjust in your coffee to make "pH Adjust alkalinizing coffee" then consider doing it for the taste!

    Tip: To make this coffee more hydrating, try adding 8-16 drops of Patrick Flanagan's Crystal Energy, which makes the water in this drink more bioavailable.

    keto coffee ingredients MCT oil ghee

    KETO COFFEE TASTES GOOD

    Keto coffee tastes good. The oils and fats provide a rich, hearty taste. It is creamy, warm, and delicious. And as I mentioned, it is filling, so it satisfies hunger.

    Adding pH Adjust to keto coffee won't change the taste much. In fact, many people say adding pH Adjust makes it taste better. I agree. This may be due to the fact that the formula contains glycine in the form of potassium glycinate. Glycine tastes good and is naturally "sweet" without the harmful effects of sugar. In fact, to me pH Adjust imparts a slightly sweet flavor that is reminiscent of "caramel."

    pH Adjust may slightly change the texture of your coffee. It may make regular, non-keto coffee appear and taste "creamier." Most people won't mind that. As for keto coffee, it is already "creamy" due to the coconut/MCT oil and ghee. pH Adjust might just add a bit more texture to it.

    Also, there may be a slight chalky, white residue at the bottom of your cup. This does not happen if you mix in the pH Adjust formula well, or if you re-stir (or swirl) the coffee cup or glass when it's half full. Remember: if you see this residue, it is pH Adjust. As such, you may wish to drink it as is, or add little more liquid (coffee, water, etc.) and quaff it down.

    keto coffee blender drink Mix the MCT or coconut oil and ghee (or butter) using a blender or stick blender.

    DRINK pH ADJUST FOR ALKALINITY

    To me, the most important thing about coffee or keto coffee with pH Adjust is not how it tastes or how it reduces hunger, etc. It is how is increases pH levels. Alkalinity is important for health. No matter how you choose to take or drink it, pH Adjust will alkalinize. In spades.

    Besides coffee, you can add pH Adjust to juices, teas, smoothies, shakes, water, and even lemonade. The fact is, taking pH Adjust is more important than the drink you choose to take it with. You decide the drink.

    That being said, I really like keto coffee with pH Adjust. I add ice for a delightful, cooling concoction in summer. In winter, I drink it hot.

    I think you will enjoy keto coffee with pH Adjust, too. And, if you already brew and drink your own version of keto coffee, then increased alkalinity—and better health—is as simple as adding a spoonful of pH Adjust. ~

    RESOURCES

    HPDI BLOG ARTICLES

    Alkalizine with Lemonade Diet and pH Adjust

    Got Potassium?

    Racing and Recovery with pH Adjust Alkalinizing Formula

    Alkalinize Rapidly Using pH Adjust

    pH Adjust Alkalinizing Formula – New Product!

    BOOKS & ARTICLES

    Acid-alkaline balance: role in chronic disease and detoxification
    (Altern Ther Health Med, 13(4):62-5)

    Acid & Alkaline by Herman Aihara

    Bicarb Magical Mineral Supplement by Dr. Mark Sircus, Ac, OMD

    The Bulletproof Diet by Dave Asprey

    Head Strong by Dave Asprey

    The High Blood Pressure Solution by Richard D. Moore, MD, PhD

    The K Factor: Reversing and Preventing High Blood Pressure without Drugs by Richard D. Moore, MD, PhD

    Keto: The Complete Guide to Success on The Ketogenic Diet by Maria Emmerich

    Simply Keto: A Practical Approach to Health & Weight Loss by Suzanne Ryan

    The XXL Syndrome by Max Rombi, MD

    LISTS & REFERENCE

    The Acid Alkaline Food Guide
    by Dr. Susan Brown and Larry Trieviei, Jr.

    Potassium Intake of the US Population (PDF)
    (NHANES Food Surveys Research Group, USDA)

    Potassium: Health Benefits, Recommended Intake

    List of acid-forming and alkaline forming foods

    PRODUCTS

    pH Adjust
    (Dr. Hank Liers' original formula)

    pH paper (roll)
    (Hydrion litmus paper)

  • HYDROGEN SUPPLEMENTS – ACTIVE H2 ULTRA and MEGAHYDRATE

    Fred Liers PhD hydrogen supplements Active H2 Ultra MegahydrateSupplemental hydrogen is fast becoming essential in many people's nutritional supplement regimens. Why? Because hydrogen offers significant health benefits, including excellent antioxidant protection, increased energy, faster recovery, and improved well-being. Who doesn't want those benefits?

    My favorite way to take hydrogen is to make hydrogen-infused water, or what I call a hydrogen "fizzy" drink. Two products I like best are Active H2 Ultra tablets and Megahydrate (available in powder and capsules). Active H2 Ultra provides molecular hydrogen (H2) and Megahydrate provides hydride (H-). Both are great standalone formulas, yet work well together as each provides unique means to quench free radicals effectively.

    MAKE "FIZZY" HYDROGEN-INFUSED WATER WITH ACTIVE H2 ULTRA

    Drinking H2-rich water is an easy and effective method for obtaining hydrogen, according to the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation. Making hydrogen-infused water is simple and convenient, as you can drink it at home or while traveling. Effective hydrogen products HPDI carries include Active H2 Ultra tablets, Megahydrate powder, and Megahydrate capsules.

    My favorite hydrogen drink contains both Active H2 Ultra and Megahydrate. I take these products separately at times, but find it easier to take them together—and gain the benefits of both immediately.

    Active H2 Ultra Megahydrate Active H2 Ultra tablets and Megahydrate powder work together for major antioxidant power.

    INGREDIENTS – HYDROGEN-INFUSED WATER

    • 1 Scoop Megahydrate powder (500 mg) or 1 Megahydrate capsule (600 mg)

    • 1 Tablet of Active H2 Ultra

    • 8–16 Ounces of Purified Water

    DIRECTIONS: Put one scoop of Megahydrate powder (or open one capsule) into your container of water. Let sit for about 30–60 seconds. Drop in one Active H2 Ultra tablet. Allow it to effervesce for one minute or until fully dissolved. Drink immediately. For best assimilation, preferably take on an empty stomach at least 10–15 minutes before food. Wait one hour after eating to drink hydrogen-infused water.

    Note: Do not wait long after effervesce stops to drink the water because hydrogen will escape into the air. Alternatively you can cap the container with a lid, and this will allow the hydrogen to last a while longer.

    Molecular hydrogen is sufficiently small to pass through glass, so use a metal container if you plan to cap it. If you drink immediately, then the type container you use won't matter. I personally prefer a glass mason jar. This allows me to see the tablet dissolve, but also means drinking it immediately.

    I make 1–3 hydrogen fizzy drinks daily, first in the morning and then in the afternoon, but almost never in the evening as it can be energizing. I drink hydrogen water on an empty stomach. I gain a significant energy boost, but also other benefits, including improved athletic performance, faster recovery from exercise, and an overall greater sense of well-being.

    I highly recommend you try hydrogen supplements for yourself, and then consider them for your clients or patients. Our experience is that most people are pleasantly surprised by the results they get from hydrogen supplements, especially if they have a need for exceptional free-radical defense, or stand to benefit from the proven effects of hydrogen (see list below).

    You will want to continue taking hydrogen supplements regularly because the benefits are so significant, especially over time. Let the power of hydrogen starting working for you.

    Active H2 Ultra is a fast-effervescing tablet.

    MOLECULAR HYDROGEN BACKGROUND

    More than 1,000 scientific studies indicate molecular hydrogen offers therapeutic potential in 170 disease models, and every organ of the body, according to the Molecular Hydrogen Institute.

    Hydrogen is an antioxidant. It is also an extremely small molecule that can penetrate even the tiniest cellular compartments. This helps explain how hydrogen works to offer free-radical defense throughout the entire body.

    The medical and scientific literature is clear. Hydrogen's modes of action:

    H2 reduces oxidative stress as a selective antioxidant and by maintaining homeostatic levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, etc.

    H2, like other gaseous signaling molecules (i.e. NO, CO, H2S), appears to have cell signal-modulating activity affording it with anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anti-allergy benefits.

    We include hydrogen supplements in HPDI's system of Foundational Supplements. In fact, hydrogen formulas as just one of six foundational supplements. We consider hydrogen a "secondary" foundational supplement usually to be added to a supplement regimen after the four primary ones: multivitamins, antioxidant & vitamin C formulas, essential fatty acids, and superfoods high in dietary nucleic acids (i.e., Rejuvenate! superfoods).

    THERAPEUTIC USES OF HYDROGEN

    The scientific literature discusses the use of molecular hydrogen for many clinical applications, including:

    • Metabolic Syndrome including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, and obesity

    • Ischemia/reperfusion injuries, including cerebral and myocardial infarctions, organ transplants, post-cardiac arrest

    • Neuroprotection, including applications for dementia, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anesthesia

    • Inflammation, including applications for polymicrobial sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, wound healing, and bowel diseases

    • Mitochondrial diseases

    • Hemodialysis and ventilation

    • Aging, including cognitive decline

    • Exercise, including applications for fatigue, lactic acid, recovery, and oxidative stress related to heavy exercise

    Side effects of cancer therapies, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    • Many other benefits

    (Source: Molecular Hydrogen Foundation)

    HOW HYDROGEN WORKS

    According to the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation, there are three ways molecular hydrogen exerts positive health effects:

    1.  Molecular hydrogen easily diffuses into subcellular compartments where it scavenges cytotoxic oxygen radicals, thereby protecting DNA, RNA, and proteins against oxidative stress.

    2.  Molecular hydrogen triggers activation or upregulation of additional antioxidant enzymes (e.g., glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and others) and/or cytoprotective proteins of the body.

    3.  Molecular hydrogen may be a novel signaling molecule that alters cell signaling, cell metabolism, and gene expression. This may explain its apparent anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-apoptotic (or anti-cell death) effects.

    Notably, two of these three mechanisms of action involve antioxidant activity. Hydrogen is one of the best antioxidants for all the reasons discussed, and we believe it acts synergistically with other antioxidants, including Vitamin C, glutathione, and Nrf2 activators (like those in HPDI's Ultimate Protector).

    MEGAHYDRATE MAKES MOLECULAR HYDROGEN BETTER

    Why add Megahydrate to your hydrogen-infused water? Because Megahydrate provides hydride, the negative anion of hydrogen, or H-. Thus, a tiny scoop of Megahydrate provides vast quantities of electrons available to quench free radicals. Unlike molecular hydrogen, which dissipates quickly into the air, and therefore must be consumed immediately, hydride rich water (about -700 ORP!) may last for three weeks in an active state. That is a good reason to take Megahydrate by itself whether or not you already use it with molecular hydrogen in your hydrogen "fizzy" drink (see recipe above).

    Megahydrate Active H2 Ultra Megahydrate (powder or capsule) provides hydride (H-) for free radical defense.

    The interesting thing about H- is that after it gives up its electron, it becomes simply "H" or atomic hydrogen. It then looks to pair up with another "H" to become H2, which is molecular hydrogen. In this way, Megahydrate not only gives you large quantities of stable H- and potent antioxidant capabilities, but also then creates molecular hydrogen in your body. This means it becomes a different kind of antioxidant, H2, which is therapeutic in itself.

    By adding Megahydrate to your hydrogen-infused water (as described above), you create a unique "double whammy" drink in which you maximize the powers of hydrogen (H2 and H-) to create and maintain good health.

    Note: Megahydrate powder is more cost effective than Megahydrate capsules, which must be opened into the fizzy drink. However, Megahydrate capsules are convenient for traveling and are easy to take by themselves. I keep both available, so I can use either one depending on my daily needs.

    hydrogen supplements active h2 ultra

    DRINKING HYDROGEN-INFUSED WATER

    Drinking H2-rich water is an easy, effective method for obtaining hydrogen according to the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation. Drinking hydrogen-infused water is convenient as you can drink it at home or while traveling. Effective hydrogen products HPDI carries include Active H2 Ultra tabletsMegahydrate capsules, and Megahydrate powder.

    As noted, I make 1–3 hydrogen drinks daily using Megahydrate and Active H2 Ultra. I drink them on an empty stomach. I enjoy a significant energy boost, which helps power me through my day. I gain other benefits, including improved athletic performance, noticeably faster recovery from exercise, and an overall greater sense of well-being.

    The nice thing about hydrogen supplements is how flexibly you can use them. While I typically prefer to make hydrogen-infused "fizzy" drinks in water, I will often sip Megahydrate-infused water by itself during the day or even in the evening (as it is less energizing than molecular hydrogen).

    Megahydrate does not immediately lose its potency in water, so it can be casually sipped. Also, if you're traveling or on-the-go, you can simply swallow a Megahydrate capsule by itself. Finally, you can carry Active H2 Ultra tablets with you wherever you go, and add them to water whenever convenient for you.

    Megahydrate Active H2 Ultra Megahydrate and Active H2 Ultra create an ultra-healthy hydrogen 'fizzy' drink.

    TRY HYDROGEN!

    Try hydrogen supplements for yourself. Then consider recommending them to client, patients, friends, and family. Most people welcome the results from hydrogen. This is especially true if they need exceptional free-radical defense — and who doesn't? We can all stand to benefit from the proven health benefits hydrogen uniquely provides.

    After you try hydrogen, you will want to continue taking it. Hydrogen-infused "fizzy" water can become your go-to drink. Remember, hydrogen works best when taken consistently and daily!

     

    HYDROGEN RESOURCES

    Hydrogen Articles

    Hydrogen Supplements – Make Hydrogen Drinks

    Hydrogen for Optimal Health

    Wonders of Molecular Hydrogen

    Molecular Hydrogen (H2) at the Forefront of Health Research

    The Science Behind MegaHydrate by Hank Liers, PhD

    Hydrogen Supplements

    Active H2 Ultra tablets

    Megahydrate capsules

    Megahydrate powder

    HPDI hydrogen supplements

    Other Hydrogen Resources

    Molecular Hydrogen Foundation

    hydrogen supplements megahydrate active H2

  • HYDROGEN SUPPLEMENTS – MAKE HYDROGEN DRINKS

    Fred Liers PhD hydrogen supplements drinks H2I love hydrogen supplements. So should you. Since starting my morning—and often afternoon—routine of making hydrogen drinks in the kitchen, I have come to appreciate the surge of energy lasting many hours, as well as a host of other benefits.

    Most of all, I am amazed how easy hydrogen supplements are to use considering how much they do for you, and how well they complement the supplements I already take—seeming to make them all more effective.

    I typically use one or two effervescing Active H2 Ultra tablets in 8–16 ounces of water. Then I like to open one Megahydrate capsule directly in the effervescing water. I wait about 90 seconds to let the tablets stop "fizzing" and then I drink immediately. Allowing the drink to sit for a few minutes is okay, but the sooner you drink it, the higher the concentration of hydrogen. Note: I used Vital Reaction tablets in this video, but my preferred product is the new, improved Active H2 Ultra (tablets) which dissolves in less than one minute—faster than other hydrogen tablet formulas—thereby preserving more hydrogen in the water.

    HYDROGEN SUPPLEMENTS ARE EFFECTIVE

    Hydrogen supplements are among the newer, cutting-edge nutritional formulas available to support optimal health. More than 500 scientific articles now support the therapeutic potential hydrogen for essentially every organ system and in 150 human disease models, according to the non-profit Molecular Hydrogen Foundation. In fact, hydrogen is rapidly incorporated into medicine, sports medicine, peak performance, elite fitness, and more.

    Hydrogen is an antioxidant. It is also an extremely small molecule that can penetrate even the tiniest cellular compartments. This helps explain how hydrogen works to offer free-radical defense throughout the entire body.

    The medical and scientific literature is clear. Hydrogen's modes of action:

    H2 reduces oxidative stress as a selective antioxidant and by maintaining homeostatic levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, etc.

    H2, like other gaseous signaling molecules (i.e. NO, CO, H2S), appears to have cell signal-modulating activity affording it with anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anti-allergy benefits.

    We include hydrogen supplements in HPDI's system of Foundational Supplements. In fact, hydrogen formulas as just one of six foundational supplements. We consider hydrogen a "secondary" foundational supplement usually to be added to a supplement regimen after the four primary ones: multivitamins, antioxidant & vitamin C formulas, essential fatty acids, and superfoods high in dietary nucleic acids (i.e., Rejuvenate! superfoods).

    HYDROGEN MEDICINE

    The scientific literature discusses the use of molecular hydrogen for many clinical applications, including:

    • Metabolic Syndrome including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, and obesity

    • Ischemia/reperfusion injuries, including cerebral and myocardial infarctions, organ transplants, post-cardiac arrest

    • Neuroprotection, including applications for dementia, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anesthesia

    • Inflammation, including applications for polymicrobial sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, wound healing, and bowel diseases

    • Mitochondrial diseases

    • Hemodialysis and ventilation

    • Aging, including cognitive decline

    • Exercise, including applications for fatigue, lactic acid, recovery, and oxidative stress related to heavy exercise

    Side effects of cancer therapies, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    • Many other benefits

    (Source: Molecular Hydrogen Foundation)

    HOW HYDROGEN WORKS

    According to the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation, there are three ways molecular hydrogen exerts positive health effects.

    1.  Molecular hydrogen easily diffuses into subcellular compartments where it scavenges cytotoxic oxygen radicals, thereby protecting DNA, RNA, and proteins against oxidative stress.

    2.  Molecular hydrogen triggers activation or upregulation of additional antioxidant enzymes (e.g., glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and others) and/or cytoprotective proteins of the body.

    3.  Molecular hydrogen may be a novel signaling molecule that alters cell signaling, cell metabolism, and gene expression. This may explain its apparent anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-apoptotic (or anti-cell death) effects.

    HYDROGEN IS SAFE

    Molecular hydrogen exhibits great safety, and it is regarded as safe for use in the body. It is shown no toxicity even in high concentrations.

    Safety standards have long been established for high concentrations of hydrogen for inhalation largely because of the history of high-pressure H2 gas used in deep-water diving gas mixtures for preventing decompression sickness.

    Notably, H2 gas combusts only at temperatures higher than 527 °C, and it explodes by chain reaction with oxygen (O2) only in the range of Hconcentration (4–75%, vol/vol).

    Molecular hydrogen is used for medical applications safely by several ingestion methods including inhalation of 1–4% hydrogen gas, for example, which exhibits great effectiveness. All these factors mean that hydrogen is safe, easy-to-use, and effective for therapeutic purposes.

    DRINKING HYDROGEN-INFUSED WATER

    According to the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation, drinking H2-rich water is the easiest, and often the most effective, method for obtaining hydrogen.

    Drinking hydrogen-infused water is easy to do, and convenient as you can drink it at home or while traveling. Effective hydrogen products HPDI carries include Active H2 Ultra tablets, and Megahydrate capsules.

    As noted, I make one or two hydrogen drinks daily, first in the morning and then often again in the afternoon. I drink them on an empty stomach. I enjoy a significant energy boost, which helps power me through my day. I gain other benefits, including improved athletic performance, noticeably faster recovery from exercise, and an overall greater sense of well-being.

    I highly recommend you try hydrogen supplements for yourself, and then consider them for your clients or patients. Our experience is that most people are pleasantly surprised by the results they get from hydrogen supplements, especially if they have a need for exceptional free-radical defense, or stand to benefit from the proven effects hydrogen uniquely provides (see list above).

    Once you try hydrogen, you will want to continue taking it because the benefits are so significant. Let the power of hydrogen starting working for you on a daily basis!

    HYDROGEN RESOURCES

    Hydrogen Articles

    Hydrogen for Optimal Health

    Wonders of Molecular Hydrogen

    Molecular Hydrogen (H2) at the Forefront of Health Research

    The Science Behind MegaHydrate by Hank Liers, PhD

    Hydrogen Supplements

    Active H2 Ultra tablets

    Megahydrate capsules

    Other Hydrogen Resources

    Molecular Hydrogen Foundation

    hydrogen supplements megahydrate active H2 Hydrogen supplements like Megahydrate and Active H2 are foundational in the HPDI supplement system.
  • REJUVENATE! PLUS SUPERFOOD — NEW IMPROVED FORMULA

    Fred Liers PhD rejuvenate! plus superfoodAs if Rejuvenate! PLUS weren't already the delicious, nutritious superfood you know and love. Now, Dr. Hank Liers, HPDI's formulator, has enhanced the formula for a truly remarkable taste and nutrition experience, you must try for yourself to believe!

    The name Rejuvenate! Plus remains, but think of it as "version 2.0" because the nutritional upgrades and taste improvements are striking.

    By the way, the "new" Rejuvenate! Plus is available now, so you can look forward to a truly remarkable user experience. We are confident you will be more than pleasantly surprised.

    You will not believe your tastebuds when you try the new Rejuvenate! Plus. My humble opinion? Dr. Hank (my father and HPDI's formulator) has knocked it out of the park in his revised formula.

    Reports from sample testers have been overwhelmingly positive! Individuals who loved Rejuvenate! Plus unanimously love the new formula even more. That says a lot about this reformulation.

    Rejuvenate! Plus sweet green superfood Rejuvenate! Plus 2.0 – healthy ingredients and taste at whole new level!

    Other testers, who preferred our Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs or Original Greens formulas either say they will now add Rejuvenate! Plus to their regimen, or will mix it in with their current favorite Rejuvenate! superfood.

    Some individuals sampling the new formula who had never tried it before or previously did not often use Rejuvenate! Plus have decided to use it as their primary superfood—or take it daily.

    We couldn't be happier because these reports confirm the new Rejuvenate! Plus is a significant improvement over previous versions, and make our year-long effort to reformulate the product worth it. These early reports based on product samples show we have succeeded!

    Some things haven't changed: Rejuvenate! Plus remains the most popular and best-selling of all HPDI Rejuvenate superfoods. As always, it provide therapeutic levels (at least 340 mg) of dietary nucleic acids (RNA, DNA), greens (chlorella and spirulina) as in the lighter, sweeter greens (as compared to dark intense green-ness of Rejuvenate! Original greens) that both leads to slower, yet effective detoxification, and is powerfully energizing and cleansing. Rejuvenate! Plus also remains a foundational supplement that retains a complete built-in multivitamin sub-formula.

    What then has changed? In short, we have changed a few ingredients, added or upgraded other ingredients, increased protein and nucleic acids (RNA) content, and created better tasting product overall. Here is a brief summary:

    The "new" Rejuvenate! PLUS features (per serving):

    1) 500 mg more spirulina (1,900 mg total), which actually increases the RNA content by about 15 mg

    2) 2.3 grams more protein for a total of 13.9 grams

    3) Almost no sugar (just 0.6 g total)

    4) 2.3 g of powerful broccoli and alfalfa sprout extract powders

     5) 200 mg of organic BiAloe® aloe vera powder with over 18% acemannan

    6) 5-MTHF (500 mcg) — a better form of folate

    6) An extremely smooth texture, and even more delicious taste—users rate as significantly better than prior versions—which says a lot because Rejuvenate! Plus already tasted great.

    In short, these are the changes that make the new, improved Rejuvenate! Plus a significantly better product. Now I will delve a bit deeper into each of these changes, as well as specific changes to ingredients.

    Rejuvenate! Plus superfood The new Rejuvenate! PLUS offers major improvements for optimal health.

    REJUVENATE! PLUS IS A UNIQUE, HIGH-RNA SUPERFOOD

    Rejuvenate! Plus is one three high-RNA superfoods Hank Liers of HPDI intentionally formulated to provide therapeutic levels of dietary nucleic acids. In this case, that means about 340 mg of nucleic acids per serving, and that has now been increased to at least 355 mg. The fact that Rejuvenate! Plus provides such high levels of dietary nucleic acids makes it—and the entire line of Rejuvenate! superfoods—unique!

    A short history lesson: Benjamin S. Frank, MD, PhD discovered the benefits of dietary nucleic acids in the 1960s and 1970s. He performed various studies on humans and animals using various intakes of dietary RNA. He concluded that nucleic acids are essential nutrients like vitamins and minerals. Nucleic acids provide a host of unique health benefits that make getting RNA in your diet important.

    After reading of Dr. Benjamin S. Frank's works (including Dietary Nucleic Acid Nutrition and Therapy and The No-Aging Diet), my father Hank Liers and I decided to formulate a line of superfoods based on the idea of providing high levels of dietary nucleic acids for optimal health. That was 10 years ago.

    Rejuvenate! Original Greens launched in 2007. Rejuvenate! Plus came two years later in 2009. Then Rejuvenate! Berries & Herbs in 2010. To this day, no other company has created dedicated high-RNA superfoods like HPDI's Rejuvenate line.

    DIETARY NUCLEIC ACIDS IN REJUVENATE! PLUS

    What makes Rejuvenate! PLUS—and in fact the entire Rejuvenate! line of superfoods—unique? A single serving provides therapeutic levels (340+ mg) of dietary nucleic acids (RNA, DNA, nucleotides, and nucleosides). Here are a few of the benefits and effects of nucleic acids in the body:

    • HIGHER ENERGY (ATP) PRODUCTION
    • GREATER MUSCLE MASS / STRENGTH / ENDURANCE
    • SMOOTHER SKIN / MORE YOUTHFUL APPEARANCE
    • EASIER BREATHING / “ANTI-ANOXIA” EFFECT
    • ELEVATES TISSUE OXYGENATION
    • BENEFICIAL CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS
    • LOWER CHOLESTEROL LEVELS
    • OVERALL PHYSICAL REJUVENATION
    • TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE (COLD/HEAT)
    • IMPROVES LONGEVITY / QUALITY OF LIFE
    • FAR GREATER SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING

    Source: Nucleic Acid Nutrition and Therapy

    Nucleic acids perform so many important functions in the body that getting sufficient amounts in the your diet is probably essential, just as Dr. Benjamin S. Frank asserts. That can be difficult since historically they were obtained from fish, organ meats—foods that people today may not consume in sufficiently high amounts for a variety of reasons. These reasons may include issues of taste, emphasis on vegetarian foods, concern about heavy metals or radiation, or lack of availability.

    Rejuvenate! Plus in many ways helps take the guesswork from obtaining "essential" dietary nucleic acids by providing a vegetarian, gluten free, and non-GMO source of dietary RNA—along with protein, vitamins, minerals, cofactors, and other important nutrients—in a tasty, easy-to-take powder that stays fresh for months, travels well, and can be taken in a variety of ways from smoothies to plain water!

    TRY REJUVENATE! PLUS

    You (or your clients) have everything to gain by trying Rejuvenate! PLUS. As you can see, the updated superfood is carefully formulated to help create and maintain optimal health.

    When used together with other HPDI foundational supplements and the HPDI supplement system, Rejuvenate! Plus is another "brick in your wall" of good health and can make a huge difference in terms of how you feel, perform, and function in life.

    Try the new, improved Rejuvenate! PLUS "2.0" superfood. See for yourself not only how good it tastes, but how good it can help make you feel. That's goodness all around!

    RESOURCES

    Articles

    Nine Things to Know About Rejuvenate Superfoods

    Dietary Nucleic Acids – Dr. Benjamin S. Frank, Part 1

    Dietary Nucleic Acids – Dr. Benjamin S. Frank, Part 2

    Super-Tasty Morning Nutritional Drinks

    Product Reviews

    Rejuvenate! PLUS Superfood is High in DNA and RNA with sprouts, chlorella & more by Mike Adams

    Product Review: Rejuvenate Berries & Herbs superfood is rich in RNA, plant proteins by Mike Adams

    Superfood for Cellular Survival by Dr. Mark Sircus

    Books

    Nucleic Acid Nutrition and Therapy by Benjamin S. Frank, MD, PhD

    Dr. Frank's No-Aging Diet: Eat and Grow Younger by Benjamin S. Frank, MD, PhD

    Nucleic Acid and Anti Oxidant Therapy of Aging and Degeneration by Benjamin S. Frank, MD, PhD

    Nucleic Acid Therapy in Aging and Degenerative Disease–A Metabolic Approach with DNA, RNA, and Related Metabolites by Benjamin S. Frank, MD, PhD

    Rejuvenate! Superfoods

    Rejuvenate! Superfoods

    Rejuvenate! comparison page

    Rejuvenate! PLUS

    Rejuvenate Berries & Herbs

    Rejuvenate! Original Greens

    Videos

  • THE TRUTH ABOUT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

    The Truth About Essential Fatty Acids

    Dr. Hank Liers, PhD essential fatty acidsMany in the field of nutrition have lost sight of the fact that there are two essential fatty acids needed by the body. Many people recommend omega-3 fatty acids assuming the the body gets sufficient omega-6 from the diet. The truth about essential fatty acids is more complicated. This article will show the more complete and correct picture.

    BACKGROUND

    Fatty acids are part of the lipids class, widely found in nature, food, and organisms. These fatty acids are a critical constituent of the cell membranes in all of the trillions of cells in the body. They have important biological functions including structural, communication, and metabolic roles, and they represent an important source of energy. Their metabolism produces a huge quantity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The beta-oxidation of the fatty acids is a well-known process, mostly used by the heart and the muscular tissue to obtain energy.

    Figure 1 below shows a schematic diagram of what a fatty acid looks like. One end of the structure in all cases has a carboxylic acid group (COOH) and the other end in all cases has a methyl group (CH3). Saturated fats have single bonds (-) between all carbon atoms (C), but unsaturated fats have a number of double bonds (=) between some of the carbon atoms.


    essential fatty acids Figure 1 - Basic diagram of fatty acids structure

    The human body can synthesize many of these fatty acids, except the essential fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). These two are generally found in various vegetable oils, but their important metabolites are found mainly in special vegetable oils such as borage oil and in fish oils. Linoleic acid is the most abundant fatty acid in nature, and it is the precursor of other omega-6 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid.

    Once ingested, short-chain PUFAs are converted to long-chain fatty acids. These are critical for mammalian cells in order to perform various biological functions, such as sustaining the structural integrity of cellular membranes and serving as signaling molecules. They are highly enriched in brain tissues, where they participate in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system during both embryonic and adult stages.

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively researched. They include the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (an omega-6) and alpha linolenic acid (an omega-3). Omega-3s are not abundant in our food chain. There is none in corn oil and very little in soy oil, the two most widely used food oils. Therefore, nearly all the early research with polyunsaturated oils utilized omega-6 fatty acids, predominantly as linoleic acid.

    Fish oils were neglected out of ignorance or because the investigators chose to pass over these cholesterol-containing oils. Concern eventually developed over the close association between increasing incidence of mammary tumors and high intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. After some years, researchers finally turned their investigations to the interrelationship between dietary omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

    FATTY ACID METABOLIC PATHWAYS

    The following diagram shows in detail the pathways for the production and use of fatty acids in the body. In the figure the metabolic pathways (running left to right) for four fatty acids types are shown (top - Omega-3, second - Omega-6, third - Omega-9, bottom - Omega-7). Notice that only the omega-3 and omega-6 oils are considered to be essential fatty acids because they cannot be made in the body. This means they must come from food.

    essential fatty acids Figure 2 - fatty acid metabolism pathways in the body

    The diagram shows a series of enzyme induced reactions that either add a double bond or two additional carbon/hydrogen pairs to the fatty acid. The enzymes that make this happen are called desaturase and elongase. The desaturase enzymes are given a number for the carbon number (that the enzyme is working on) from the methyl end of the fat. These same enzymes work on all of the fatty acid types. For example, Delta 6 desaturase causes an additional double bond to be inserted into both alpha-linolenic (omega-3) and linoleic acid (omega-6) (as well as oleic acid and palmitoleic acids).

    In this way, the body is able to produce a wide variety of fatty acids that have their own unique effects on biochemistry. Some of these are more important than others. In particular, the omega-3 essential fatty acid eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), the omega-6 essential fatty acid dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and the omega-6 essential fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) are precursors for a class of chemicals called eicosanoids/prostaglandins that have far reaching affects on key body functions.

    EICOSANOIDS/PROSTAGLANDINS

    Eicosanoids are prostaglandins that affect many aspects of health both positively and, in some cases, negatively. All known eicosanoids and prostaglandins are formed from the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (omega-6, or n-6), alpha linolenic acid (omega-3, or n-3), their "enhanced" derivatives, and from the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oils.

    Prostaglandins are short-lived highly active, hormone-like chemicals that are found in every cell of the body. They are regulators of cell activity and essential for maintaining health. Each cell type or organ produces its own form of prostaglandin to carry out its functions. There are three types of prostaglandins: PG1, PG2, and PG3.

    Series 1 Prostaglandins (PG1), derived from gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), the active component of borage oil, has many beneficial effects: It makes platelets less sticky, lowers blood pressure by relaxing smooth muscles in the walls of arteries, increases loss of sodium and water, decreases inflammation and enhances immunity.

    Series 2 Prostaglandins (PG2), also derived from GLA, is used in "fight or flight" (stress) situations, - the fight against danger, or the flight from it. In modern lifestyles which are high in stress but low in physical activity, continuous production of Series Two Prostaglandins results in sticky platelets, high blood pressure, increased water and sodium retention, increased inflammation and decreased immune system capabilities.

    Series 3 Prostaglandins (PG3), derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the active component of fish oil, has beneficial effects. They block the detrimental effect of the Series 2 Prostaglandins, preventing them from being made in the body. As a result the platelets are less sticky, blood pressure is lower because the muscles in the walls of our arteries remain relaxed, loss of sodium and water by the kidneys takes place more effectively, inflammation response is decreased, and immune function is efficient.

    It is now known that the ratios of these dietary fatty acids are very important. Consumption of linoleic acid leads to production of the enhanced fatty acid, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Prostaglandins based on arachidonic acid exacerbate stress and inflammatory states, and suppress immunoprotective functions (i.e. resistance to disease). Too much linolenic acid and other omega-3s may cause excessive bleeding during injury, surgery, or childbirth. Large amounts of any of these unsaturated fatty acids in the diet without a compensatory increase in antioxidant nutrients (especially Vitamin E), can speed oxidative damage to tissues, resulting in accelerated aging while increasing the risk of degenerative diseases.

    Yet, a balanced ratio of both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet offers very positive health benefits. When omega-3 fatty acids predominate, the body will produce less arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Immunity improves and inflammation subsides.

    Essential Fats

    Unfortunately, our Western diet has been almost devoid of omega-3 fatty acids. Creating the optimum intake of omega 3-to-omega 6 unsaturated fatty acids has become, therefore, an issue of prime importance for anyone concerned with health. We need to evaluate carefully the amounts of linoleic acid (n-6) we consume relative to our intake of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and fish oils (EPA:20:5n-3 and DHA:22:6n-3).

    ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS - PATHWAYS

    The diagram in Figure 3 shows details of the omega-6 and omega-3 pathways. Pathway specifics indicate key eicosanoids (series 1 prostaglandins, series 2 prostaglandins, and series 3 prostaglandins), oil sources, and important nutrient cofactors that are needed for the reactions to take place.

    essential fatty acids Figure 3 - Essential Fatty Acids – pathways in the body

    The information is this diagram gives the clues we need in order to provide optimal types and amounts of omega-6 and omega-3. For example, I have chosen for my essential fatty acid product cold pressed borage oil as the best natural source of gamma linoleic acid (GLA). It contains 20% by weight — the highest amount found in natural oils.

    RESEARCH ON ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

    Work by Chapkin et. al. (see references 1–4 below) has identified the potent synergistic relationship between GLA, an omega-6 fatty acid, and the well-known omega-3 fatty acids. Chapkin has shown that, rather than simply the quantity of dietary omega-3s, it is the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids that is important in achieving full cardiovascular health and inflammatory control.

    Furthermore, Chapkin has identified the ideal ratio. His published work deals with the importance of mixed diets supplying both linoleic and linolenic acids. To underscore the importance of these two fatty acids, refined oil supplements rich in enhanced forms were used. "Enhanced forms" are fatty acids derived from the original. They are one or more steps closer to the actual eicosanoid. In the human body, alpha linolenic acid (18:3n-3) is eventually converted to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) is converted to gamma-linolenic (GLA, 18:3n-6) as its first enhanced form. Both enhanced fatty acids are precursors to eicosanoids.

    In Chapkin's research, superior health benefits were delivered by the mixed diet that supplied the eicosanoid precursors in a specific ratio. The balanced ratio of enhanced Omega-6 (GLA)-to-Omega-3 (EPA) fatty acids was 1:4.

    IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SCIENCE

    Based upon the science discussed above, I developed a product with the correct Omega-6 (GLA)-to-Omega-3 (EPA) ratio and with proper amounts. It is available to you as Hank & Brians Essential Fats Plus E from Health Products Distributors, Inc. (HPDI).

    Essential Fats Plus E

    ESSENTIAL FATS PLUS E IS A HIGHLY ADVANCED ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS SUPPLEMENT
    OFFERING SPECIAL BENEFITS:

    1. UNIQUE COMBINATION — Essential Fats (EPA, DHA, GLA) plus Vitamin E. This unique formula offers more than one type of Vitamin E (not just d-alpha-tocopherol) and balanced essential fats.
    2. BALANCED ESSENTIAL FATS— Many EFA supplements contain only omega-3s, but for optimal function the body requires a balance of omega-3 and omega-6 essential fats. In addition, our special formula provides a 4-to-1 ratio of EPA to GLA in order to achieve a balance you need for optimal health.
    3. FULL-SPECTRUM VITAMIN E — Tocotrienols and tocopherols in this formula are natural vitamin E substances derived from oryza rice bran oil and protect polyunsatured EFAs against free-radical damage both in the capsule and in your body. Many Vitamin E supplements contain only d-alpha tocopherol, which is only a single component of the full-spectrum Vitamin E in this formula.
    4. ULTRAPURE — Molecularly distilled oils of extremely high-purity containing no PCBs, heavy metals, or oxidized contaminants. Free of excipients, additives, and common food allergens!

    COMPOSITION: Six softgel capsules provides the following percentages of the Daily Value.

    NUTRIENT AMOUNT % Daily Value†
    EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid 20:5 omega 3)
    (from 2,000 mg of purified fish oils)
    360 mg *
    DHA (docosahexaenoic Acid 22:6 omega 3)
    (from 2,000 mg of purified fish oils)
    240 mg *
    GLA (Gamma Linolenic Acid 18:3 omega 6)
    (from 450 mg of cold pressed borage seed oil)
    90 mg *
    Vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol) (from 180 mg of Oryza rice bran oil) 24 IU 81%
    Mixed Tocotrienols (d-gamma, d-alpha, and d-delta)
    (from 180 mg of Oryza rice bran oil)
    28.8 mg *

    * No established Daily Value
    † Daily Values based on a 2,000 calorie diet

    IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

    Below we provide some of the functions and benefits obtained when by diet or supplementation the correct ratios and amounts of essential fatty acids are consumed.

    • Regulate steroid production and hormone synthesis
    • Regulate pressure in the eyes, joints, and blood vessels
    • Regulate response to pain, inflammation, and swelling
    • Mediate Immune Response
    • Regulate bodily secretions and their viscosity
    • Dilate or constrict blood vessels
    • Regulate smooth muscle and autonomic reflexes
    • Are primary constituents of cellular membranes
    • Regulate the rate at which cells divide
    • Necessary for the transport of oxygen from the red blood cells to tissues
    • Necessary for proper kidney function and fluid balance
    • Prevent red blood cells from clumping together
    • Regulate nerve transmission

    GENETIC TESTING AND ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

    Please note that genetic testing for a wide range of genes and the enzymes they produce has indicated that essential fatty acids can be an important factor in helping the body overcome a variety negative gene variations. These negative gene variations include genes that relate to: 1) Inflammatory Response, 2) Exercise Performance, 3) Exercise Recovery, 4) Cardiovascular Fitness, 5) Body Composition, and 6) VO2 Max, Aerobic Capacity.

    We will discuss this more deeply in a future blog article.

    CONCLUSION

    The body is best protected from a range of health issues when we supply a mixed diet of both omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids. Studies show that we do not need to consume large amounts of fatty acids if the ratio is correct. These findings indicate that, for a typical human body, amounts of 90 mg GLA (18:3n-6) to 360 mg EPA (20:5n-3) taken daily will provide for the optimum production of the three major prostaglandins. These amounts are found in Hank & Brians Essential Fats Plus E.

    REFERENCES

    The following includes abstracts of Chapkin's published research on essential fatty acids.

    REFERENCE 1

    Chapkin RS Somers SD Erickson KL

    Dietary manipulation of macrophage phospholipid classes: selective increase of dihomogammalinolenic acid.

    In: Lipids (1988 Aug) 23(8):766-70

    Because alterations in the dietary content of fatty acids are an important method for modulating macrophage eicosanoid production, we have quantitated the levels of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in peritoneal macrophage individual phospholipids from mice fed diets (3 wk) with either safflower oil (SAF), predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage, (BOR) containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish (MFO) containing 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and borage/fish mixture (MIX) containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Dietary n-3 fatty acids were readily incorporated into macrophage phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI). The increase in n-3 fatty acid levels was accompanied by a decrease in the absolute levels of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 in PC, PE and PS. Interestingly, PI 20:4n-6 levels were not significantly lowered (P greater than 0.05) in MIX and MFO macrophages relative to SAF and BOR. These data demonstrate the unique ability of this phospholipid to selectively maintain its 20:4n-6 levels. In BOR and MIX animals, 20:3n-6 levels were significantly increased (P less than 0.05) in all phospholipids relative to SAF and MFO. The combination of borage and fish oils (MIX diet) produced the highest 20:3n-6/20:4n-6 ratio in all phospholipids. These data show that the macrophage eicosanoid precursor levels of 20:3n-6, 20:4n-6 and n-3 acids can be selectively manipulated through the use of specific dietary regimens. This is noteworthy because an increase in phospholipid levels of 20:3n-6 and 20:5n-3, while concomitantly reducing 20:4n-6, may have therapeutic potential in treating inflammatory disorders.

    Institutional address: Department of Human Anatomy School of Medicine University of California Davis 95616.

     

    REFERENCE 2

    Chapkin RS Carmichael SL

    Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on macrophage phospholipid classes and subclasses.

    In: Lipids (1990 Dec) 25(12):827-34

    This study examined the effects of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid alimentation on murine peritoneal macrophage phospholipids. Mice were fed complete diets supplemented with either corn oil predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage oil containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish/corn oil mixture containing 18:2n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, or fish/borage oil mixture containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. After two weeks, the fatty acid levels of glycerophosphoserines (GPS), glycerophosphoinositols (GPI), sphingomyelin (SPH), and of the glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE) phospholipid subclasses were determined. We found that mouse peritoneal macrophage GPC contain primarily 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl (range for the dietary groups, 24.6-30.5 mol %) and 1,2-diacyl (63.2-67.2 mol %), and that GPE contains 1-O- alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl (40.9-47.4 mol %) and 1,2-diacyl (44.2-51.2 mol %) subclasses. In general, fish oil feeding increased macrophage 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels while simultaneously reducing 20:4n-6 in GPS, GPI, GPE and GPC subclasses except for 1-O-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl GPC. Administration of 18:3n-6 rich diets (borage and fish/borage mixture) resulted in the accumulation of 20:3n-6 (2-carbon elongation product of 18:3n-6) in most phospholipids. In general, the novel combination of dietary 18:3n-6 and n-3 PUFA produced the highest 20:3n-6/20:4n-6 phospholipid fatty acid ratios. This study demonstrates that marked differences in the responses of macrophage phospholipid classes and subclasses exist following dietary manipulation.

     

    REFERENCE 3

    Fan YY Chapkin RS

    Mouse peritoneal macrophage prostaglandin E1 synthesis is altered by dietary gamma-linolenic acid.

    In: J Nutr (1992 Aug) 122(8):1600-6

    The ability of dietary gamma-linolenic acid [18:3(n-6)] to modulate prostaglandin biosynthesis in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages was determined. Mice were fed diets containing corn oil, borage oil or evening primrose oil or a mixture of borage and fish oils. After 2 wk, resident peritoneal macrophages were isolated and stimulated with unopsonized zymosan to induce prostaglandin synthesis. Borage oil, primrose oil and fish-borage oil mixture dietary groups (containing 25.6, 11.9 and 19.5 g gamma-linolenic acid/100 g fatty acids, respectively) had significantly (P less than 0.05) enhanced prostaglandin E1 synthesis (39.7, 29.4 and 73.0 nmol prostaglandin E1/mg protein, respectively) compared with corn oil-fed (containing less than 0.1 g gamma-linolenic acid/100 g fatty acids) animals, which synthesized less than 0.1 nmol prostaglandin E1/mg protein. Borage oil- and fish-borage oil mixture-fed mice had the highest biosynthetic ratio of prostaglandin E1/prostaglandin E2 (E1/E2 approximately 0.2). Macrophages from borage oil-fed mice synthesized the lowest amount of prostacyclin (198.7 nmol 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha/mg protein) compared with corn oil-, primrose oil- and fish- borage oil mixture-fed mice (379.7, 764.8 and 384.2 nmol 6-keto- prostaglandin F1 alpha/mg protein, respectively). In addition, borage oil-, primrose oil- and fish-borage oil mixture-fed mice had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher levels of dihomo-gamma- linolenic acid [20:3(n-6)] in membrane phospholipids (5.5, 3.5 and 5.7 mol/100 mol, respectively) relative to corn oil-fed mice (2.0 mol/100 mol).

     

    REFERENCE 4

    Fan YY Chapkin RS Ramos KS

    Dietary lipid source alters murine macrophage/vascular smooth muscle cell interactions in vitro.

    In: J Nutr (1996 Sep) 126(9):2083-8

    This study was conducted to compare the impact of dietary lipids on the ability of macrophages to modulate vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) DNA synthesis in vitro. C57BL/6 female mice were fed six different diets (6 mice/diet) containing 10% fat from corn oil (CO), borage oil (BO), primrose oil (PO), fish-corn oil mix (FC, 9:1, w/w), fish-borage oil mix (FB, 1:3, w/w), or fish-primrose oil mix (FP, 1:3, w/w) for 2 wk. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from these mice, stimulated with zymosan or vehicle, and subsequently co-cultured with naive mouse aortic SMC in the presence of 3H-thymidine to measure SMC DNA synthesis. In this co-culture system, macrophages were seeded on 25-mm culture inserts (upper chamber) and SMC were seeded on 35-mm culture dishes (lower chamber). The two cell types were separated by a semipermeable membrane with a 30-kD cut-off. When quiescent SMC were co-cultured with macrophages, only the PO and FP diet groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower SMC DNA synthesis compared with the control CO group whose diet contained no gamma- linolenic acid (GLA) or (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In contrast, when cycling SMC were co-cultured with diet-modulated macrophages, all dietary groups except for those fed FC had significantly lower (P < 0.05) SMC DNA synthesis relative to the CO group. Although the level of GLA in PO and BO diets was different (11.5 and 22.3 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively), these treatments exerted comparable inhibitory effects on SMC DNA synthesis. The FP treatment consistently exhibited the lowest SMC DNA synthetic profile among the six dietary groups irrespective of SMC growth conditions. These data suggest that BO and PO alone or in combination with fish oil influence macrophage/smooth muscle cell interactions in a manner consistent with favorable modulation of the atherogenic process.

    These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

    BOOKS

    1. Enig, Mary G. Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol. Bethesda Press, 2000.

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