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  • ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS – SEVEN ARGUMENTS FOR NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

    Fred Liers PhD nutrients nutritional supplementsAlmost daily articles, reports, or studies appear claiming nutritional supplements are not effective. The claims vary, but the verdict is always there is little or no scientific evidence proving supplements (or the nutrients in supplements) work. Others assert that people who take supplements have the world's most expensive urine. This is nonsense! The scientific evidence is clear, available, and it has been for a long time.

    Among the many problems with these reports is bashing supplements based on studies using low dose or non-therapeutic levels of nutrients. There is frequently failure to consider the importance of synergy among nutrients. Often there is data manipulation via statistical methods (often in meta-analyses).

    Well beyond the question of whether supplements support health are the factors in modern life that create a greater needs for supplementing with important vitamins, minerals, cofactors, and other nutrients.

    This month we present "Seven Arguments for Nutritional Supplements." As the title implies, there are at least seven solid arguments for nutritional supplementation. There are actually a lot more.

    To preview these arguments in favor of taking supplements, they are: 1) reduced food quality, 2) nutrient density varies by location, 3) modern lifestyles and stress, 4) environmental pollution, 5) too low RDAs, and 6) promotion of health and delaying of aging, and 7) the human right to correct information.

    essential nutrients fatty acids EFA supplement Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) are one type of essential nutrient required for health.

    We at HPDI re-publish articles from the Orthomolecular News Service  (OMNS) because the authors provide much needed truth. Truth the form of correcting the false assumptions of anti-supplement propagandists to clarify the benefits of nutritional supplements. This information can help people be healthier easily and at relatively low cost.

    HPDI offers a full line of foundational nutritional supplements, including multivitamins, vitamin C and antioxidant formulas, essential fats, and high-RNA Rejuvenate! superfoods. We also offer nearly 100 other nutritional supplements from single nutrients to condition specific formulas. See our full product overview.

    Enjoy this article from the Orthomolecular News Service (OMNS). ~

    Seven Arguments for Taking Nutritional Supplements

    by Dag Viljen Poleszynski, PhD

    (OMNS Sept 12 2018)

    One of the most vitamin-restrictive countries in the world is Norway. There, authorities limit potencies to only slightly higher than RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) levels for dietary supplements sold outside of pharmacies. The traditional reasoning is that most people receive the nutrients they need from a "balanced diet." [1]

    The authorities are also obsessively concerned that some vitamins and minerals are harmful in high doses. And, since an intake of water-soluble vitamins in excess of needs is excreted in the urine, Norwegian "experts" advise that taking supplements is a waste of money.

    Accordingly, the argument goes, the public should be protected not only from possible harm, but also from wasting money on unnecessary nutrients. The official policies on nutritional supplements vary within OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. Some are more liberal, while others are even more restrictive.

    The official view on the connection between nutrient intake and possible toxicity is illustrated by the Norwegian Food Authority in a graph. [2]

    Perceived risk from intake of nutrients. (Source: Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals. Safe upper limits for Vitamins and Minerals. May 2003: Food Standards Agency, UK.)

    The graph illustrates the official view on nutrients, assuming that nutrients function in the same way as pharmaceuticals, which they do not. Supplements of most vitamins, but also minerals and other nutrients, do not have very serious side effects even when taken at very high levels - in contrast with most drugs. [3,4] The fact that most of the chemotherapeutic drugs used against cancer have none or even just marginal effects against most cancers [5], while at the same time cause a lot of serious side effects, is rarely up for discussion.

    The idea that nutritional supplements are not safe has a legal underpinning in Norwegian Food Law, which in section 16 prohibits sale of any food which is not safe: "Any food shall be considered not to be safe if it is seen as detrimental to health or not fit for consumption." [6]

    However, the Norwegian authorities do admit that vitamin D supplements are needed during part of the year. [1] Only part of the year? One third of Norway is within the Arctic Circle. Norway has far too little sunshine (especially during winter months) to get adequate levels of vitamin D from UVB radiation on the skin.

    The authorities also recommend that pregnant women take folic acid to prevent birth defects, and omega-3-fatty acids may be advisable for those who do not eat fish regularly. Norwegians have a long tradition of giving children cod liver oil, which in a daily tablespoon provides enough vitamin A and D and essential fatty acids to cover basic needs.

    Essential and conditionally essential nutrients

    There are thousands of dietary supplements on the market, including 40+ essential nutrients alone and in various combinations, i.e. vitamins, minerals, trace elements and fatty acids. However, a number of other nutrients are "conditionally essential", meaning that the body normally can make these molecules, but some people do not make optimal amounts. Examples are L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic acid, the methyl donor betaine, [7] chondroitin sulfate, coenzyme Q10, choline, amino acids such as tyrosine or arginine, and "essential" sugars normally formed in the body. [8]

    Healthy young people normally make sufficient amounts of conditionally essential molecules in the body, although the levels are not always optimal. With inadequate levels of minerals or vitamins, key enzymes in biochemical pathways may not function optimally.

    Due to genetic mutations, some enzymes may have increased needs for certain cofactors (vitamins), which can prevent them from functioning optimally.[9] Some enzymes only function normally when supplied with cofactors in greater amounts than normally required.

    If supplements of essential nutrients prove insufficient for optimal enzyme function, "conditionally essential" nutrients may be added as part of a comprehensive, therapeutic program.

    Some reservations

    Parents are advised to become familiar with the literature on essential nutrients, for instance by consulting the Orthomolecular News Service. Children should be given supplements in appropriate doses and in a suitable form. Pills should not be given before children can control the swallowing reflex. Multivitamin powder can be given dissolved in water or juice. Parents should not dose vitamin C so high that a child comes to school or kindergarten with loose bowels or diarrhea.

    In high doses, niacin may cause unpleasant side effects such as flushing and itching lasting up to several hours. [10] Although this is not dangerous, it may cause a child to feel unwell and anxious. Starting niacin supplementation with a low dose and gradually increasing it will allow the body to adapt and avoid the niacin flush.

    A multivitamin supplement containing moderate amounts of niacin is often adequate until a child is 8-10 years old. For younger children, the dosage should start with only a few tens of milligrams, and not increased to more than 50-100 mg/day. Adults may gradually get used to taking 1,000-1,500 mg/d divided into 3 doses per day.

    When it comes to omega-3 fatty acids (omega = ω) such as EPA and DHA, children may be given cod liver oil and served fish and/or other seafood 2-3 times a week. It is important to check the dose of vitamin A supplied, as it can be toxic in high doses, especially for children. One problem with cod liver oil today is that vitamin D has been removed during processing, thus changing the natural ratio of the two vitamins so that we ingest relatively too much of vitamin A. [11]

    Higher dosages may be given after having consulted a therapist who has measured the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in relevant cell membranes (red blood cells). In most industrialized countries, many people get too much of the omega-6 fatty acids, and would therefore benefit from eating more seafood or taking supplements with omega-3 fatty acids derived from organisms low in the food chain (algae, krill).

    Flax seeds contain a high level of the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid, and freshly ground flaxseed meal or flax oil can be mixed with breakfast cereals or smoothies. Note that it may be advisable to limit eating farmed fish to once per week, since their fodder contains less omega-3 fatty acids than the food eaten by wild fish, and possibly also contains more contaminants. [12] Some researchers even warn against letting children eat too much fish because of the content of environmental toxins. [13,14]

    Reasons for high-dose supplements of micronutrients

    I have identified a number of arguments in favor of supplementing the modern diet with essential nutrients, here summarized with seven headlines. Most people should consider taking a multivitamin supplement containing vitamins and minerals even if they eat a nutritionally balanced diet.

    Additional nutrients may contribute to better health and, in some cases, can be of vital importance in our modern world. The arguments are presented in random order, i.e. the order does not reflect priority.

    1. The agricultural revolution has reduced food quality

    The transition from an existence as hunter and gatherers to urban agriculture around 10,000 years ago began an epoch when foods were mass-produced but had lower nutritional density, compared with the previous food eaten by our ancestors. The nutritional density in many foods has fallen significantly since human societies transformed from hunter-gatherers into resident farmers. This is especially true in the last 60-70 years after agriculture was changed from small, versatile ecologically driven family farms to large, chemical-based, industrial agriculture. [15]

    The reduction of nutritional content in modern crops, compared with older varieties, is well documented. [16] It is a consequence of soil erosion, loss of essential minerals from continual heavy use, combined with breeding of new varieties, which has increased the size and growth rate of plants by increasing the content of sugar and water and decreasing their mineral content compared to ancient species. At the same time, the relative content of other macronutrients (fat, protein/amino acids) and antioxidants may have been reduced.

    Reduced nutritional density in many foods, combined with the use of refined "foods" like sugar, white flour and refined oils, places a greater priority on eating the most nutritious foods.

    Farm produce grown organically generally has higher levels of essential nutrients such as trace minerals because the soil contains higher levels of trace minerals and the produce grows slower and thus has more time to absorb nutrients from the soil. Examples of nutrient dense foods are sardines, wild salmon, shellfish, eggs, liver, kale, collards and spinach, sea plants (seaweed), garlic, blueberries, and dark chocolate. [17]

    2. Nutritional content of food varies with geographical location

    Nutritional density varies considerably geographically between different regions, even with the same agricultural methods. This was documented in the United States in 1948 by a researcher at Rutgers University in the so-called Firman Bear report. [18] At that time agriculture was little mechanized, and artificial fertilizers and pesticides were hardly used.

    The analysis found large differences in the content of minerals in the same food. The largest variations were found for potassium, sodium, boron and iron in spinach, while the greatest differences in calcium, magnesium and copper content were found in tomatoes.

    The soil in areas with relatively low rainfall may in some cases contain an extremely high concentration of minerals, which is reflected in the plants growing there. This was well documented 70 years ago in the book Tomorrow's Food. [19] The dentist George W. Heard found that the soil in Hereford, Texas, was exceptionally rich in minerals.[20]

    Hereford became known as the "town without a toothache" after a newspaper article from January 29, 1942, reported that Hereford had the lowest incidence of tooth decay of any city in the United States. [21] Dr. Heard found that people in Hereford had exceptionally few dental cavities and also that the soil locally was especially rich in minerals. He emphasized that the population in the county ate unprocessed food and was drinking raw milk. [19]

    Recent research shows that differences in the content of the selenium in the soil can cause major differences in the concentration of selenium in meat. [22] For instance, since the soil in Finland is poor in selenium, the authorities decided in the early 1980s to add selenate to commercial fertilizers. A survey of selenium status among 108 healthy young people showed an increase in the blood selenium level of about 50 percent after four years. [23]

    A similar problem with the level of minerals in the soil exists for the content of magnesium. Often when the soil gets depleted of magnesium from heavy use, this essential mineral is not included in soil amendment with fertilizers. Produce grown in soil with an adequate level of magnesium will contain more magnesium than produce grown in soil deficient in magnesium.

    Perhaps as many as 70-80% of the US population is magnesium-deficient, which causes many health problems. [24] Magnesium supplements (chloride, malate or citrate) can provide an adequate level when vegetables grown in soil with adequate magnesium are not available.

    3. Stress and the modern lifestyle increase the need for nutrients

    Mental stress increases the excretion and hence the need for many nutrients. Among the most important are magnesium and vitamin C, both of which are used by the body in larger quantities during periods of physical and mental stress. [24,25] Compared with our past as hunters and gatherers, today´s stress is often of a more permanent nature. Instead of experiencing occasional situations where we had to fight or flee, many of us live with recurring stress day in and out.

    Vitamin C protects the brain and nervous system from damage caused by stress because the synthesis and maintenance of chemical neurotransmitters such as adrenaline and noradrenaline requires adequate levels of vitamin C. [25]

    Vitamin C is also needed to repair collagen which is essential for skin, blood vessels, bones and joints, and muscles. When these are damaged by physical stress, extra vitamin C is necessary.

    A controlled trial of 91 adults who experienced increased anxiety and stress 2-3 months after an earthquake in New Zealand in 2011 was divided into three groups, two were given a broad spectrum supplement of micronutrients in low or higher doses. [26] The supplements were found to alleviate the experience of stress, with the biggest dose having the biggest effect.

    Our sedate, modern lifestyle reduces the need for energy from food, which implies a lower food intake or obesity. Loren Cordain, PhD, and coworkers have estimated that hunter-gatherers had significantly higher energy needs than the typical modern office worker. [27]

    A lower energy intake generally reduces the absolute intake of all nutrients, while the need for some nutrients is not always reduced proportionally with energy intake. Overall this suggests that more exercise along with a more nutritious diet, including supplements of essential nutrients and less carbohydrates, will help to prevent obesity and maintain health.

    Processing of food reduces its nutritional content, and the finished products are often based on fractions of the original foods. One example is milling grain to make white flour, [1] which has a lower nutritional density than whole grain flour.

    The reduction in nutritional value has accelerated since whole foods are now divided into pieces, for example, boneless chicken breast. When meat is injected with saline to increase the volume, the relative level of essential nutrients is reduced. In the United States, many supermarkets in low-income rural and inner city areas have a limited selection of nutrient-dense foods, compared with high-income areas. [28]

    4. Environmental pollutants increase the need for nutrients

    The need for efficient detoxification and excretion is greatly increased by environmental pollution from the chemical industry, herbicides and pesticides used by industrial agriculture, antibiotic treatment of animals, transport, and plastic packaging. [29]

    In our polluted world, the increased toxic load may be compensated for by an increase in nutrients to promote detoxification. One can respond by taking large doses of supplements of essential nutrients, for example, antioxidants vitamin C and E, and an adequate dose of selenium, which help the body detoxify harmful chemicals. Also helpful is regularly taking sauna baths, fasting periodically, and eating an excellent diet that includes generous portions of dark green leafy vegetables and colorful vegetables and fruits. [30]

    A recent study predicts that global warming may reduce the nutrient density in many foods worldwide. [31] Atmospheric CO2 is estimated to surpass 550 ppm in the next 30-80 years, leading to larger crops with lower content of protein, iron and zinc per energy unit.

    Assuming that diets remain constant, while excluding other climate impacts on food production, the researchers estimated that elevated CO2 could cause an additional 175 million people to be zinc deficient and an additional 122 million people to be protein deficient in 2050. Anemia would increase significantly if crops lose even a small amount of iron. The highest risk regions - South and Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Middle East - are especially vulnerable, since they do not have the means and access to compensate using nutritional supplements.

    5. The RDA for essential nutrients is too low

    The recommended nutrient reference intake (NRI) has been defined by UK authorities and the EU Food Safety Agency as the dose that is adequate for 95 percent of the population. [32] These authorities have given recommendations for a total of 41 chemical substances, [33] including 13 vitamins, 17 minerals/trace elements, 9 amino acids and two fatty acids. The problem with such guidelines is that when using the same 0.95 fraction for just 16 of the essential nutrients, the fraction of the overall population that has their needs met with the RDA is less than half (0.9516 = 0.44).

    Given the above assumption, the proportion of the population having all nutrient needs met falls below 25 percent for 30 nutrients (0.9530 = 0.21). These 25 percent will not necessarily get optimal amounts, just enough so that they probably will have no deficiencies in accordance with established standards. Each individual is different and has different biochemical needs, so we all need different doses of essential nutrients. Many vitamins and minerals can give additional benefit when taken at higher doses.

    The need for several essential nutrients increases with age and sickness. This applies, for example, to vitamin C, vitamin D, magnesium, and iron. In 2017 the Norwegian Food Safety Authority proposed to revise the official maximum levels for vitamins and minerals in dietary supplements. [34]

    Their proposal introduced four different age categories with separate maximum intakes. Initially, the agencies proposed to revise the daily doses allowed in dietary supplements for folic acid, magnesium, calcium, vitamin C and D. At the same time, maximum rates were temporarily suspended for vitamins A, E, K, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenate (B5), pyridoxine (B6), cobalamine (B12), biotin, and for phosphorus, iron, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, selenium, chromium, molybdenum, sodium, potassium, fluoride, chloride, boron and silicon.

    The upper limits for some nutrients may be changed in the future. Unfortunately, Norwegian nutrition "experts" will likely continue to limit allowable doses below those freely available in the US and even Sweden.

    6. An optimal nutrient intake promotes health and delays aging

    A spokesperson for optimal nutritional intake is the well-known biochemist Bruce Ames, who proposed the "triage theory of nutrients," in which enzymes responsible for cell maintenance functions evolved to have lower affinity for the essential vitamin and mineral cofactors than the enzymes responsible for short-term survival, to preserve life during times of famine. [35]

    Thus, higher levels of vitamins and minerals may delay mitochondrial aging, speed up the repair of large molecules such as DNA and collagen, and generally improve other cellular functions. This is an important rationale for taking higher doses of vitamins and minerals than recommended reference intakes.

    Dietary supplements can slow the aging process, in part by reducing the harmful effects of free radicals, known to be involved in many diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. [36]

    Naturally occurring hormones and/or supplements of cofactors needed for optimal hormone production in the body can have a significant life-prolonging effect if the body produces less than optimal amounts. [37] This is especially relevant for those with a genetic predisposition for disease.

    An optimum intake of all nutrients is difficult to achieve even for those who eat almost exclusively an excellent diet of nutrient dense foods, such as meat and innards, fish, shellfish, fowl, eggs, nuts, mushrooms, and vegetables, berries and nutritious fruits. Some nutrients such as folic acid or carotenoids in vegetables are absorbed better from processed than unprocessed foods.

    Although vegetables are often considered to be a good source of vitamins, for example vitamin A from carrots, vitamin A is only found in animal products such as liver, egg yolk, fish cod and cod liver oil. Although eating raw vegetables is helpful for several reasons (vitamin C, fiber, microbiota), carotenoids (alpha/beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene) in vegetables are less well absorbed from raw than cooked food and better absorbed in the presence of added fat. [38,39].

    Nutrients in vegetables are better absorbed when finely chewed, graded, or mashed [38], and cooking and grinding meat reduces the energy required to digest it [40] and increases nutrient absorption [41].

    Orthomolecular pioneer Abram Hoffer and Orthomolecular News Service Editor Andrew W. Saul suggested this list of daily intakes of vitamins and minerals. [42] The Norwegian 2017 recommendations for adult men and women [43] are given in comparison. Individual needs may vary substantially from person to person and also with health status.

    The figures for optimal intake are obtained from the Independent Vitamin Safety Review Panel of physicians, researchers and academics, who concluded:

    "People are deceived in believing that they can get all the nutrients they need from a 'balanced diet' consisting of processed foods. To achieve an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals, a diet of unprocessed whole foods, along with intelligent use of dietary supplements is more than just a good idea: it is vital." [44: 55]

    A well-known example is vitamin C, which can effectively fight viral infections, prevent or reverse disease caused by bacteria, and help the body detoxify organic and inorganic toxins. [45] Vitamin C also reduces the risk for cancer, strengthens connective tissues (collagen), and counteracts stress by increasing the adrenal´s production of cortisol. The dose required is set according to the body's need.

    Nobel Price Laureate Linus Pauling suggested that an optimal daily intake of vitamin C could vary from at least 250 mg up to 20 grams per day. [46] Because unabsorbed vitamin C attracts water into the gut, some people may experience loose stools, gas and/or diarrhea by ingesting only 1-2 grams at a time, while others with a higher level of stress may tolerate 5-6 grams or more. The dose that causes loose stools is called the "bowel tolerance" for vitamin C. [47] To avoid the laxative effect of high doses, it is best to take vitamin C throughout the day in smaller divided doses.

    When the body is stressed by disease, the gut will naturally absorb more vitamin C because the body needs more. To find the optimal dose, the intake should be increased until bowel tolerance is reached. Some people can tolerate more than 100,000 mg/d of vitamin C in divided doses during serious illness without having loose stool.

    Liposomal vitamin C bypasses the normal bowel tolerance because it is absorbed directly through cell membranes, so higher doses can be tolerated without diarrhea.

    7. A human right to receive correct information

    Access to correct information about food and essential nutrients, including knowledge about the importance of food for health is a fundamental human right. Such information should not only provide a summary of the nutrient content of food, but in our opinion should also explain how dietary supplements can counteract deficiencies and prevent and reverse disease caused by nutrient deficiencies.

    We should be free to purchase quality-controlled supplements of essential nutrients and to use them to counteract aging and damage from stress as part of a long-term health plan. The right to reject recommendations by doctors for symptomatic treatment with synthetic, some times life-threatening, drugs to alleviate symptoms should be included. [48,49]

    I have not found any formulation of such rights from the Norwegian authorities. The role of parents and their right to receive correct health information is addressed in a book by lawyer Anne Kjersti C. Befring, a fellow at the University of Oslo since 2014. [50]

    Summary

    The use of dietary supplements is widespread. High doses of vitamins are thought to be helpful because they help the body recover from damage and maintain itself long-term. Many vitamins are not harmful in doses even 10 to 100-fold higher than officially recommended.

    Some governments warn about possible negative side effects, even including increased mortality from "excessive" intake of certain supplements. However, supplements of essential nutrients have been available for more than 80 years. They are known to be safe, and the observed side effects are generally mild with few exceptions.

    It is possible to ingest too much of certain vitamins and minerals (vitamin A, calcium, iron, copper, selenium) which may exacerbate an existing imbalance or lack of another mineral (magnesium, zinc). It is also important to balance intake of fatty acids in the omega-6 and omega-3 series, as most people get too much omega-6 and not enough omega-3.

    Small children can be overdosed with adult doses of for example vitamin A or iron, and pills may be dangerous for babies or young children because they can get stuck in the throat. Therefore, I recommend consulting a doctor or nutritionist educated in orthomolecular medicine. Most people are likely to benefit from taking a broad-spectrum multivitamin/mineral supplement as a basic insurance against deficiencies.

    Compared to pharmaceutical drugs, supplements of most essential nutrients are quite harmless. However, some supplements may have poor quality, or contain toxic metals such as lead or cadmium. Therefore, it is the duty of our authorities to ensure that potentially hazardous products or supplements of poor quality are not sold, and that consumers are offered fair prices in a free market.

    An example where the Norwegian authorities do not follow up such basic duties is that pharmacies demand more than 1,600 Norwegian Kroner (about $190) per kg of vitamin C in powder form, which would cost less than $20 with free competition and no restrictions in permitted doses or outlets.

    Those who want to use natural healing methods, such as the use of food and supplements of essential nutrients to prevent or reverse illness, should consult therapists who are qualified to give advice on how natural therapies can help.

    I recommend that anyone interested in supplements read the references for this article as well as the archives of the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine http://orthomolecular.org/library/jom/ and the Orthomolecular Medicine News Service http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/index.shtml . Both are free access online.

    (Dag Viljen Poleszynski, PhD, is the editor of Helsemagasinet [Health Magazine] https://vof.no/arkiv/ . He has translated and published a large number of OMNS releases in Norwegian.)

     

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    35. Ames BN. Prevention of mutation, cancer, and other age-associated diseases by optimizing micronutrient intake. Journal of Nucleic Acids 2010; 210: 1-11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945683/

    36. Halliwell B, Gutteridge HMC. Free radicals in biology and medicine. 5th edition. Oxford, NY: Clarendon Press, 2015. ISBN-13: 978-0198717485

    37. Hertoghe T. The hormone handbook. Copyright (c) 2006 Thierry Hertoghe. Surrey, UK: International Medical Publications, 2006.

    38. Edwards AJ, Nguyen CH, You CS, et al. a- og ß-carotene from a commercial carrot puree are more bioavailable to humans than from boiled-mashed carrots, as determined using an extrinsic stable isotope reference method. Journal of Nutrition 2002; 132: 159-67. https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/132/2/159/4687130

    39. Unlu NZ, Bohn T, Clinton SK et al. Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil. The Journal of Nutrition 2005; 135: 431-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15735074

    40. Boback SM, Cox CL, Ott BD et al. Cooking and grinding reduces the cost of meat digestion. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, molecular & integrative physiology 2007; 148: 651-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17827047

    41. Carmody RN, Wrangham RW. Cooking and the human commitment to a high-quality diet. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 2009; 74: 427-34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19843593

    42. Hoffer A, Saul AW. Orthomolecular medicine for everyone. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, Inc., 2008. ISBN-13: 978-1591202264

    43. Hjartåker A, Pedersen JI, Müller H mfl. Grunnleggende ernæringslære. 3. utgave. [Basic nutrition] Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag AS, 2017.

    44. Levy TE. Vitamin C, infectious diseases, & toxins. Curing the incurable. 3rd Edition. (c)Thomas E. Levy 2011. Medfox Pub. ISBN-13: 978-0977952021

    45. Pauling L. How to live longer and feel better. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1986. ISBN-13: 978-0870710964

    46. Cathcart, RF III. The method of determining proper doses of vitamin C for the treatment of disease by titrating to bowel tolerance. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 1981; 10: 125-32. http://orthomolecular.org/library/jom/1981/pdf/1981-v10n02-p125.pdf

    47. Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients. A meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA 1998; 279: 1200-5. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/187436

    48. Moore TJ, Cohen MR, Furberg CD. Serious adverse drug events reported to the Food and Drug Administration, 1998-2005. Archives of Internal Medicine 2007; 167: 1752-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17846394 .

    49. Hitchen L. Adverse drug reactions result in 250 000 UK admissions a year. BMJ 2006; 332: 1109. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16690649 .

    50. Befring AKC. Helse- og omsorgsrett. [Health and Care] Oslo: CappelenDamm AS, 2017.

    Nutritional Medicine is Orthomolecular Medicine

    Orthomolecular medicine uses safe, effective nutritional therapy to fight illness. For more information: http://www.orthomolecular.org

    Find a Doctor

    To locate an orthomolecular physician near you: http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v06n09.shtml

    The peer-reviewed Orthomolecular Medicine News Service is a non-profit and non-commercial informational resource.

    Editorial Review Board:

    Ilyès Baghli, M.D. (Algeria)
    Ian Brighthope, M.D. (Australia)
    Prof. Gilbert Henri Crussol (Spain)
    Carolyn Dean, M.D., N.D. (USA)
    Damien Downing, M.D. (United Kingdom)
    Michael Ellis, M.D. (Australia)
    Martin P. Gallagher, M.D., D.C. (USA)
    Michael J. Gonzalez, N.M.D., D.Sc., Ph.D. (Puerto Rico)
    William B. Grant, Ph.D. (USA)
    Tonya S. Heyman, M.D. (USA)
    Suzanne Humphries, M.D. (USA)
    Ron Hunninghake, M.D. (USA)
    Michael Janson, M.D. (USA)
    Robert E. Jenkins, D.C. (USA)
    Bo H. Jonsson, M.D., Ph.D. (Sweden)
    Jeffrey J. Kotulski, D.O. (USA)
    Peter H. Lauda, M.D. (Austria)
    Thomas Levy, M.D., J.D. (USA)
    Homer Lim, M.D. (Philippines)
    Stuart Lindsey, Pharm.D. (USA)
    Victor A. Marcial-Vega, M.D. (Puerto Rico)
    Charles C. Mary, Jr., M.D. (USA)
    Mignonne Mary, M.D. (USA)
    Jun Matsuyama, M.D., Ph.D. (Japan)
    Dave McCarthy, M.D. (USA)
    Joseph Mercola, D.O. (USA)
    Jorge R. Miranda-Massari, Pharm.D. (Puerto Rico)
    Karin Munsterhjelm-Ahumada, M.D. (Finland)
    Tahar Naili, M.D. (Algeria)
    W. Todd Penberthy, Ph.D. (USA)
    Dag Viljen Poleszynski, Ph.D. (Norway)
    Jeffrey A. Ruterbusch, D.O. (USA)
    Gert E. Schuitemaker, Ph.D. (Netherlands)
    Thomas L. Taxman, M.D. (USA)
    Jagan Nathan Vamanan, M.D. (India)
    Garry Vickar, MD (USA)
    Ken Walker, M.D. (Canada)
    Anne Zauderer, D.C. (USA)

    Andrew W. Saul, Ph.D. (USA), Editor-In-Chief
    Editor, Japanese Edition: Atsuo Yanagisawa, M.D., Ph.D. (Japan)
    Robert G. Smith, Ph.D. (USA), Associate Editor
    Helen Saul Case, M.S. (USA), Assistant Editor
    Ralph K. Campbell, M.D. (USA), Contributing Editor
    Michael S. Stewart, B.Sc.C.S. (USA), Technology Editor
    Jason M. Saul, JD (USA), Legal Consultant

    Comments and media contact: drsaul@doctoryourself.com OMNS welcomes but is unable to respond to individual reader emails. Reader comments become the property of OMNS and may or may not be used for publication.

  • GENETICS, EPIGENETICS & HUMAN BIOLOGY

    Genetics, Epigenetics, and Human Biology

    Dr. Hank Liers, PhD geneticsWe are entering a time in which new scientific tools are available that provide clear insights regarding the causes of poor health, as well as therapies that can be used to overcome health issues. Specifically, these tools include 1) our understanding and ability to characterize the human genome, and 2) advances in the science of epigenetics showing how environmental factors significantly influence the expression of genetics and human biology.

    For many years, my company (Health Products Distributors, Inc. – "HPDI") has been involved in Rejuvenation/Healing Programs which take multiple health modalities into consideration (for information on HPDI's Rejuvenation/Healing Programs, see Additional Resources below). Our programs have generally involved the following elements:

    1. Health-Building Nutrition
      Rejuvenation begins with nutrition in the broadest sense. That is, nutrition derived from healthy foods, superfoods, supplements, dietary nucleic acids, water and fluids, as well as via the skin. Establishing health-building nutrition is foundational to rejuvenating the body, mind, and spirit.
    2. Detoxification & Preventing Toxicity
      Individuals cannot fully experience rejuvenation without having effective means for removing existing toxins form the body, or for stopping further accumulation of toxins absorbed from foods, air, water, and skin. Such toxins include everything from chemicals in foods and water to the many toxins found in homes, workplaces, personal products, and just about everywhere.
    3. Building Powerful Immunity
      Building immunity is important for health because the immune system is the means by which the body defends itself. Yet, if the best defense is a strong offense, then having a strong immunity protects us in ways beyond just defense. Building immunity is accomplished not only by nutrition, but also by utilizing herbs, immune boosting supplements, and immune-enhancing protocols.
    4. Supporting Protocols
      Certain practices and protocols powerfully support rejuvenation. These protocols include exercise, massage, saunas/hydrotherapy,  yoga, acupuncture, meditation, and others.
    5. Attitude and Commitment to Becoming Healthy
      Attitude and Commitment are foundational to your rejuvenation/healing program because having total focused intention regarding your health is essential for success. If a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step, establishing that intention perspective is a great place to start.

    ADDING GENETICS TEST TO HPDI REJUVENATION PROGRAM

    In the last few years, we have seen how healing and wellness programs can be significantly enhanced by adding genetics testing into the mix. In fact, we have joined forces with BodySync, a company with the most advanced single genetics test available. This test characterizes 45 different genes and gene variations. The Bodysync genetics test results are combined with basic lifestyle information provided by the patient to create a complete program customized for dealing with gene variations having either harmful or helpful effects.

    The insights gleaned by taking the BodySync genetics test provides new insights into reasons a person may experience health challenges that no other method can provide. The test results and action plan also provide information regarding genetic strengths, especially related to athletic performance and weight management.

    The NutriSync test from BodySync genetics

    HPDI now adds the BodySync genetics test to the list of key elements in our rejuvenation/healing programs. In fact, we are now introducing the BodySync genetic test along with consultations to our HPDI Reseller Associates—so that health practitioners (HPs) can experience the benefits of the test for themselves— and see how genetics consulting can be added to their practice. In addition, BodySync has selected HPDI as their preferred supplier of nutritional supplements supporting the recommendations provided in their Action Plans for individuals taking the test. It is exciting to be part of this breakthrough in the practice of genetic science.

    BROAD OVERVIEW OF GENETICS, EPIGENETICS, AND HUMAN BIOLOGY

    In order to give a more complete understanding of our program for attaining excellent health, we have developed a broad scientific overview of how all the key elements are related and eventually expressed as YOU.

    The diagram below provides a broad overview of genetics, epigenetics, and human biology with the goal of showing how the elements are interrelated. More discussion on the key elements is provided below the diagram.

    Genetics, Epigenetics, and Human Biology genetics

     

    GENOME

    The human genome is the sum of the body's DNA and is considered to be static for each individual—remaining the same over a lifetime. The human genome contains all the instructions needed to make the full range of human cell types including muscle cells and neurons. This includes all of the body's DNA, both the genes (the coding regions) and the noncoding DNA, as well as the genetic material of the mitochondria and chloroplasts.

    With the breakthrough in gene testing now available, it is possible to isolate relevant genes from a field of  approximately 20,000 different genes. These 20,000 different genes make up less than 2% of the total amount of DNA.

    It has been found that the underlying gene patterns can exhibit "genetic variations". Ultimately, genetic variations are caused by variations in the order of bases in the nucleotides in genes. New technology, such as that used in the BodySync genetics test, allows scientists to directly sequence DNA which has identified even more genetic variation than was previously detected by previous methods such as protein electrophoresis.

    Examination of DNA has shown genetic variation in both coding regions and in the non-coding intron (nonprotein-coding sections) region of genes. Mutation is the ultimate source of genetic variation, but mechanisms such as sexual reproduction and genetic drift contribute to it as well.

    Genetic variation will result in phenotypic variation if variation in the order of nucleotides in the DNA sequence results in a difference in the order of amino acids in proteins coded by that DNA sequence, and if the resultant differences in amino acid sequence influence the shape, and thus the function of the enzyme.

    Genetic variations/base substitutions can change a codon to one that encodes a different amino acid and cause a small change in the protein produced. For example, sickle cell anemia is caused by a substitution in the beta-hemoglobin gene, which alters a single amino acid in the protein produced.

    Genetic variations can change a codon to one that encodes the same amino acid and causes no change in the protein produced. These are called silent mutations.

    Also, base substitutions can change an amino-acid-coding codon to a single "stop" codon and cause an incomplete protein. This can have serious effects since the incomplete protein probably won't function.

    In some genetic variations there may be a piece of the DNA deleted or inserted in a gene that may also lead to Present/Insertion or Deletion variation (INDEL). Since protein-coding DNA is divided into codons three bases long, insertions and deletions can alter a gene so that its message is no longer correctly parsed.

    When it comes to genetic traits, scientists look at genes and the locus where that gene or trait encodes on the chromosome. Since humans possess two copies of each chromosome, they also have two copies of each gene and locus on those chromosomes. Each of these trait-encoding genes (or loci) is called an allele. If the alleles match, the person is homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous for that trait.

    If a mutation occurs in just one copy of the gene then that individual is considered heterozygous. On the other hand if both copies of a gene are mutated then that individual is homozygous genotype. Many of these mutations can have undesirable health affects for an individual.

    BodySync's technology has helped to usher in the age of personalized nutrigenomics. The company has built its intellectual property and technology to support its vision of providing services in partnership with health care professionals (HP). BodySync's NutriSync (NS) genetics test consists of only the most well-researched genetic variations with direct applicability to actionable personalized health and wellness recommendations (most of which fall into the epigenetic category).

    The NutriSync genetics test has been based on evaluations of thousands of peer reviewed articles, published research papers, and human intervention studies, as well as extracting data of tens of thousands of DNA and self-reported lifestyle samples in its database.

    EPIGENOME

    The human epigenome serves as a bio-record of chemical changes that have occurred in a person's DNA and their histone proteins. Unlike the underlying genome which is largely static within an individual, the epigenome can be dynamically altered by environmental conditions. For example methyl groups from the diet can tag DNA and activate or repress certain genes as shown in the diagram below.

    The epigenome is involved in regulating gene expression, development, tissue differentiation, and suppression of transposable elements. These changes in underlying DNA and histone proteins can be passed down to an organism's offspring via transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Changes to the epigenome can result in changes to the structure of chromatin and changes to the function of the genome.

    EPIGENETICS

    Epigenetics, on the other hand, is the study of changes in gene expression (active versus inactive genes) that do not involve changes to the underlying DNA sequence — a change in phenotype (the manifestation that is YOU) without a change in genotype — which in turn affects how cells read the genes. To be sure, epigenetic change is a regular and natural occurrence in our bodies, but can also be influenced by several factors including age, the environment/lifestyle, drug usage, and disease state.

    Epigenetic modifications can manifest as commonly as the manner in which cells terminally differentiate to end up as skin cells, liver cells, brain cells, etc. Also, epigenetic change can have more damaging effects that can result in diseases like cancer. At least three epigenetic mechanisms (two of which are shown in the diagram below) including DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA (ncRNA)-associated gene silencing are currently considered to initiate and sustain epigenetic change.

    genetics epigenetics mechanisms

    ENVIRONMENT

    In this context the term "ENVIRONMENT" refers to all of the "external" influences we experience. In the diagram we list what are generally considered to be positive and negative factors contributing to our overall health.

    Some of these factors such as free-radicals and drug use affect our genome directly. Environmental agents such as UV light, ionizing radiation, and genotoxic chemicals (e.g. the drug thalidomide) can cause DNA damage. DNA damage is very frequent, occurring on average about 10,000 times a day per cell of the human body.

    These damages are largely repaired, but at the site of a DNA repair, epigenetic changes can remain. In particular, a double strand break in DNA can initiate unprogrammed epigenetic gene silencing both by causing DNA methylation, as well as by promoting silencing types of histone modification.

    The field of epigenetics is rapidly growing and with it the understanding that both the environment and individual lifestyle directly interact with the genome to influence changes in the way various genes are expressed. These changes may be reflected at various stages throughout a person’s life and even in later generations. For example, human epidemiological studies have provided evidence that prenatal and early postnatal environmental factors influence the adult risk of developing various chronic diseases and behavioral disorders.

    Also, research has also shown that a mother’s exposure to pollution could impact her child's asthma susceptibility and her intake of Vitamin D could change DNA methylation that influences placenta functioning. It doesn’t stop at the mother, however, as further studies support that the father has a hand in his child’s health and epigenetic marks, as well.

    Although our epigenetic marks are more stable during adulthood, they are still thought to be dynamic and modifiable by lifestyle choices and environmental influence. It is becoming more apparent that epigenetic effects occur not just in the womb, but over the full course of a human life span, and that epigenetic changes could be reversed. There are numerous examples of epigenetics that show how different lifestyle choices and environmental exposures can alter marks on top of DNA and play a role in determining health outcomes.

    The environment is being investigated as a powerful influence on epigenetic tags and disease susceptibility. Pollution has become a significant focus in this research area as scientists are finding that air pollution could alter methyl tags on DNA and increase one’s risk for neurodegenerative disease. Also, adequate amounts of B vitamins may protect against harmful epigenetic effects of pollution and may be able to combat the harmful effects that particulates have on the body.

    Diet has also been shown to modify epigenetic tags in significant ways. The field of nutriepigenomics explores how food and nutritional supplements and epigenetics work together to influence health and well being. For example, a study found that a high fat, low carbohydrate diet could open up chromatin and improve mental ability via HDAC (histone deacetylase) inhibitors.

    Other studies have found that certain compounds within the foods we consume could protect again cancer by adjusting methyl marks on oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Ultimately, an epigenetic diet may guide people toward the optimal food regimen as scientific studies reveal the underlying mechanisms and impact that different foods have on the epigenome and health.

    RNA/PROTEIN

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.

    Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA it is more often found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information that directs synthesis of specific proteins.

    These protein molecules are the "workhorses" of the cell carrying out all the functions necessary for life. For example, enzymes, including those that metabolize nutrients and synthesize new cellular constituents, as well as DNA polymerases and other enzymes that make copies of DNA during cell division, are all proteins.

    PHENOTYPE

    Your phenotype is a description of your actual physical characteristics. This includes straightforward visible characteristics like your height and eye color, but also your overall health, your disease history, and even your behavior and general disposition. Do you gain weight easily? Are you anxious or calm? Do you like cats? These are all ways in which you present yourself to the world, and as such are considered phenotypes.

    However, not all phenotypes are a direct result of your genotype; chances are that your personal disposition to cats is the result of your life’s experience with pets (epigenetic) rather than a mutation in a hypothetical cat fancier gene.

    Most phenotypes are influenced by both your genotype and by the unique circumstances in which you have lived your life, including everything that has ever happened to you (epigenetic). We often refer to these two inputs as “nature,” the unique genome you carry, and “nurture,” the environment in which you have lived your life.

    HEALTH AND DISEASE

    Your phenotype expresses who YOU are in a multitude of ways and in particular shows your strengths and weaknesses regarding health, mental abilities, and athletic performance to name a few. By incorporating genetics and epigenetic tests and controlling your environment in positive ways your strengths can be expressed more easily and your weaknesses minimized!!

    CONCLUSION

    I have provided an overview of how genetics testing provides new scientific insights into many health issues that have previously not been well understood. An overview of genetics, epigenetic, and human biology has been provided that shows the overall relationships of these topics. Hopefully, the rationale is clear for adding genetic testing into programs that provide protocols for more successful healing regimens.

     

    ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

    HOMOCYSTEINE GENETICS – COENZYME B VITAMINS

    REJUVENATION PROGRAM SERIES

    Rejuvenation Program Part Ten: The Yoga Program

    Rejuvenation Program Part Nine: Acupuncture. Supporting Protocols Part Four – Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

    Rejuvenation Program Part Eight: Massage. Supporting Protocols Part Three – The Massage Program.

    Rejuvenation Program Part Seven. Supporting Protocols Part Two – The Magnesium Chloride Program

    Rejuvenation Program Part Six. Supporting Protocols Part One (garlic, hydrotherapy, and sauna therapy programs).

    Rejuvenation Program Part Five. Beyond foundational supplements. Seven enhancement supplements that supercharge your health. CoenzymeQ10 and/or Ubiquinol, Myo-Mag, Hepa Plus, Nascent Iodine, Echinacea, Immune-Assist™.

    Rejuvenation Program Part Four. The role of foundational supplements (multivitamin, Vitamin C / antioxidant formula, Rejuvenate!™ superfoods) for health.

    Rejuvenation Program Part Three. Health building nutrition and the role of dietary nucleic acids (RNA, DNA, nucleosides, and nucleotides).

    Rejuvenation Program Part Two. Foundational elements in the HPDI Rejuvenation Program: 1) Attitude/Commitment, 2) Detoxification, 3) Preventing Toxicity, 4) Health Building Nutrition, 5) Building Powerful Immunity, and 6) Supporting Protocols.

    Rejuvenation Program Part One. Introducing the HPDI Master Rejuvenation Program and its foundational elements. The importance of Attitude/Commitment.

     

  • RESTORE GUT HEALTH FORMULA + VIDEO

    Fred Liers PhD restore liquid mineral supplement gut healthHeard of RESTORE liquid mineral supplement? If not, you're about to discover something important for gut health.

    RESTORE™ is formulated to help restore gut health. It works by strengthening the integrity of tight junctions in your intestinal wall.

    Maintaining tight junctions is important because they protect your body from substances entering the blood stream. Restore also supports the communications systems of the bacteria in your microbiome.

    Tight junctions are natural barriers protecting the lining of your gut barrier, organs such as kidneys and heart, and the blood-brain barrier thereby keeping out unwanted substances. Even as we take in nutrients from the GI tract, the function of tight junctions is maintaining the integrity of the gut wall and other barriers that protect the body.

    These days, our gut membrane has a tough job keeping out unwanted substances. Because tight junctions are weakened by many things, including highly processed foods, especially those containing gluten and gliadin, the herbicide glyphosate (the primary ingredient in RoundUp weedkiller), and other exposures like electromagnetic fields (EMF) from digital devices and Wi-Fi networks.

    As a result of weakened tight junctions, undesirable substances from food proteins, harmful chemicals and other toxins can slip though into our bloodstream. This can lead to a powerful immune response that can weaken immunity and cause significant inflammation. Foreign substances in the bloodstream can also result in extreme food allergies and food sensitivities to various toxins entering the body.

    We live in an age in which our microbiome health is under assault.  Studies show our ancient ancestors had 20,000–30,000 different strains of beneficial bacteria in their GI tracts. Many people today have just 5,000 or less. Why is that?

    There are many reasons for low microbiome diversity. These reasons include antiobiotic use (both from pharmaceuticals and foods), glyphosate (which essentially acts like an antibiotic), processed foods (especially those containing gluten and gliadin), and systemic degradation of the gut environment rendering it less hospitable for maintaining health populations of gut flora.

    These impacts are significant because diversity in your microbiome not only supports gut health, but also appropriate  brain health, immune system health, and overall vitality. Restore acts as a "microbiome fertilizer" helping establish and maintain healthy microbiota.

    In fact, Restore contains important "redox" molecules produced millions of years ago by existing soil bacteria. These molecules are an important part of communications systems within the body between gut bacteria and with the body's mitochondria. These communication systems play an important role in establishing proper homeostasis throughout the body.

    REASONS TO USE RESTORE™

    There are important reasons to try Restore—whether or not you experience significant gut health issues. These reasons include:

    • Maintaining strong tight junctions for mega membrane health, and helping the body restore tight junction integrity

    • Creating an environment in which beneficial bacteria can thrive

    • Boosting microbiome diversity

    • Healing the gut

    • Mitigating the adverse effects substances like antibiotics, gluten/gliadin, glyphosate, and GMOs on microbiome health

    • Supporting immune system function

    • Protecting integrity of blood-brain barrier

    Other benefits include support for respiratory wellness, enhancing mental clarity, and promoting proper homeostasis throughout the body.

    For all these reasons and more, you should consider taking Restore. You can start by taking one teaspoon or less daily, and gradually increasing your dose to one tablespoon or more.Restore for gut health liquid supplement

    I have taken Restore daily for more than two years, and benefit greatly from it. The most noticeable effects are a complete cessation of spring allergies (after two decades of worsening symptoms), greater clarity of thinking, and improved overall well being. I have seen other people get good results with a variety of conditions from dysbiosis to gluten/gliadin sensitivity.

    MORE ABOUT RESTORE™

    You can learn more about Restore on our website. Also, the Restore website offers in-depth information and videos. Here is how the Restore website and Dr. Zach Bush describe the formula:

    Restore is a dietary supplement supplying first line defense against daily exposure to environmental and food-borne factors. It helps create an optimal environment or ecology in the gut membrane for beneficial or "good" bacteria to flourish. Beneficial gut flora protect your immune system and maintain health. Restore is a scientifically proven soil-derived mineral supplement designed to support protection of the intestinal walls.

    Restore protects the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract against agricultural herbicides, antibiotics, GMOs, gluten, and food-borne toxins. It helps create an environment in which 20,000–30,000 different strains of beneficial gut bacteria can thrive. This is a far different mode of action from probiotics, most of which contain just 3–30 strains of beneficial bacteria.

    Restore helps create a strong immune system along with proper gut function. Microbiome balance and tight junction integrity are known to constitute a significant part of the immune system. They directly affect DNA transcription of cells to promote optimal health and prevent a leaky gut syndrome, thereby improving gut intelligence.

    Seventy percent (70%) of our immune system is found in our gut. We need tens of thousands different strains of good gut bacteria to support a healthy immune system. Clinical experience, in addition to cell culture studies, support the theory that Restore’s proprietary formula creates the optimal environment in the gut to create a tight junction barrier and maintain our health and wellness.

    Restore is a daily liquid supplement designed to support the protection of the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract against agricultural herbicides, antibiotics, GMOs, gluten and food-borne toxins by helping to create an environment where between 20,000-30,000 different strains of good gut bacteria thrive. Most probiotics on the market contain fewer than 24 different strains of good gut bacteria.

    TRY RESTORE™

    Restore is ideal for individuals suffering from gut health issues. Yet, it is also excellent for supporting and maintaining gut health generally. That is the reason we at HPDI consider Restore important enough to designate as a foundational supplement, one of the top six supplements you need for good health.

    Given the safety and effectiveness of Restore, there is broad applicability for its use. This is especially true because gut and microbiome health are under constant assault. These assaults range from multiple environmental and lifestyle factors—including poor diets high in processed foods, antibiotics in pharmaceuticals and animal foods—to massive glyphosate (herbicide) contamination of foods, soils, air, and water.

    Let Restore be your first line of defense against assaults on your gut health, tight junctions, microbiome diversity, and immune function. As it says on the bottle, "Complete well-being begins in the gut."

    RESTORE RESOURCES

    Gut Health – Effects of Glyphosate and Antibiotics
    by Hank Liers, PhD and Fred Liers, PhD

    Restore - 32 oz

    Restore - 8 oz

    HPDI Gut Health Formulas

    HPDI Foundational Supplements

    Restore blog (Restore4Life)

  • DAILY ROUTINE FOR NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

    Fred Liers PhD nutritional supplements tips tricks daily routineToday I'm sharing my strategies for taking nutritional supplements in an easy,  organized way, and helping ensure you take them daily. I don't like the word "compliance" because it implies doctor's orders. Consider my ideas "hacks" instead, for establishing a daily routine.

    My goal is making your daily supplement routine simpler. That is, a hassle free, "no brainer" routine that guarantees you take the vitamins, minerals, essential fats, and other supplements you need. At least the most important ones.

    YOU NEED A DAILY ROUTINE

    Getting out of the house with a good breakfast is hard enough. Nutritional supplements have a way of being forgotten first. That is, unless and until you have a system: a set of strategies for success to ensure a daily routine.

    I've been working on my "system" for 30 years. It works for me and many others I've shared it with. So I'm sharing it with you. But you don't need to adopt my system or strategies. Watch the video, take what you like, and make it your own. Craft a system that works for you.

    My idea is to inspire and show you it's possible to dummy proof your supplement regimen to never "miss a dose"—or almost never. No matter how busy you are, how rushed you feel, or how often you tend to forget things. You can do this.

    FRED'S SYSTEM FOR A SUCCESSFUL DAILY SUPPLEMENT ROUTINE

    1. VISIBILITY IS EVERYTHING: "WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU TAKE"

    One of the most important things to consider when establishing or creating a regimen for taking supplements is to make sure your supplements are visible. That is, not hidden in a place that allows you to forget to take them. Like the bathroom. Or your garage. Bad places for supplements in general, unless you're storing them for future use, or want them to expire.

    Making your supplements visible means putting them in a place where  you can see them. Get them out of your bathroom or closet and put them in your kitchen area where you will remember to take them. Recall that nutritional supplements are "food supplements," right?

    The kitchen is best for ensuring you take your supplements. If your kitchen can't be home to your supplements, then other visible places might include the dining area (or where you eat) or possibly your pantry (or where you keep foods). The top of the refrigerator is surely an unused shelf space you cannot miss.

    Another option is keeping visible the primary supplements you take, such as multivitamins, Vitamin C, essential fats, or other high-priority supplements. Then keep less important supplements available, but not in a way that clutters counters or other spaces. By prioritizing this way, you at least ensure the visibility of your most important supplements.

    The main thing: If you can see your supplements, you are far more likely to take them, and maintain your daily routine. The kitchen is an ideal place. Because if you can't see them, you won't take them.

    2. ORGANIZE: REFRIGERATOR TOPS ARE GOOD (BUT I REPEAT MYSELF)

    After your nutritional supplements are in your kitchen or in an easily accessible—and hopefully prominent place, then consider organizing them. And noted, I often suggest using the top of the refrigerator since they won't take up counter space, yet remain visible. Other strategies for organizing and saving space are using small shelves or rotating stands, like lazy susans, as shown in the video above. Or a small basket.

    If you must put your supplements away, such as inside a cabinet to save space or for aesthetic reasons, then try to use a kitchen cabinet that is central and easily accessible. And if you use a shelf, lazy susan, or basket, then set it up so you can easily reach the shelf or grab the basket.

    The main thing: Keep supplements organized for quick and easy access. This smooths the process for actually taking them. You will be glad you did. Your body and mind will thank you.

    3. CONTAINERIZE: CUPS & SAUCERS 101

    Your supplements are visible and organized. Now what? Containerize.

    Containerizing is not just for your basket or shelf of supplements. It is also for your daily doses. That is, I suggest you set your daily doses out in advance when possible. This helps simplify your day. You can "take" your vitamins without having to think too much. You can just "grab and go."

    The system I use—and demonstrate in the video—relies on small pyrex cups. You can also you small bowls or paper cups, or any small containers you like.

    I use one cup per dose, and I usually break up my supplements into two doses per day (morning and early evening), so I use two cups per day.

    I like pyrex cups because they stack neatly and don't take up much counter space. They are portable, so you can pick up a cup (one dose) and carry it with you.

    After your doses are prepared, set them out in a place where you will see them—like the kitchen counter or dining room table. Somewhere where you are most likely not to forget them.

    The main thing: Divide your supplements into daily doses or sub-doses you can take when you're ready. It's much easier to take them when your doses are made in advance. You will win medals from the Supplement Compliance Club.

    4. BAGS FOR TRAVEL: BAG 'EM UP!

    After your doses are set out for a day or two—or an entire week—they will be ready and waiting for you. For people who work outside the home or who are traveling, transfer your supplements to portable containers. This might be snack bags (as in my video), but it could be a special box or baggie that holds individual doses.

    If I plan to travel or leave for work, I often bag my supplements and place them in my suitcase or car the night before. This ensures I don't forget them.

    For travelers in a pinch, you can put all supplements for say, a week, in a single container, and then divide them up daily. That's not my ideal, but I've seen it work for people who won't containerize every dose before traveling.

    The main thing: Scientific studies prove that having your daily supplements pre-bagged improves your chances of taking them by 1000% when traveling. Pre-bagging makes getting your daily dose so easy, you can think about other things, like where you will go next.

    MAINTAIN A DAILY ROUTINE

    Maintain your supplement routine. Doggedly. A routine can take time to establish. After you get one started, stick to it like a bee on honey.

    If you make your supplements visible, then organize, containerize, and bag them for travel, you will never miss a dose. You will guarantee compliance by implementing these simple "hacks." Then watch as your health improves and you feel better. Like Superman or Superwoman. Be prepared to jump over buildings in a single bound. ~

  • THE TRUTH ABOUT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

    The Truth About Essential Fatty Acids

    Dr. Hank Liers, PhD essential fatty acidsMany in the field of nutrition have lost sight of the fact that there are two essential fatty acids needed by the body. Many people recommend omega-3 fatty acids assuming the the body gets sufficient omega-6 from the diet. The truth about essential fatty acids is more complicated. This article will show the more complete and correct picture.

    BACKGROUND

    Fatty acids are part of the lipids class, widely found in nature, food, and organisms. These fatty acids are a critical constituent of the cell membranes in all of the trillions of cells in the body. They have important biological functions including structural, communication, and metabolic roles, and they represent an important source of energy. Their metabolism produces a huge quantity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The beta-oxidation of the fatty acids is a well-known process, mostly used by the heart and the muscular tissue to obtain energy.

    Figure 1 below shows a schematic diagram of what a fatty acid looks like. One end of the structure in all cases has a carboxylic acid group (COOH) and the other end in all cases has a methyl group (CH3). Saturated fats have single bonds (-) between all carbon atoms (C), but unsaturated fats have a number of double bonds (=) between some of the carbon atoms.


    essential fatty acids Figure 1 - Basic diagram of fatty acids structure

    The human body can synthesize many of these fatty acids, except the essential fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). These two are generally found in various vegetable oils, but their important metabolites are found mainly in special vegetable oils such as borage oil and in fish oils. Linoleic acid is the most abundant fatty acid in nature, and it is the precursor of other omega-6 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid.

    Once ingested, short-chain PUFAs are converted to long-chain fatty acids. These are critical for mammalian cells in order to perform various biological functions, such as sustaining the structural integrity of cellular membranes and serving as signaling molecules. They are highly enriched in brain tissues, where they participate in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system during both embryonic and adult stages.

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively researched. They include the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (an omega-6) and alpha linolenic acid (an omega-3). Omega-3s are not abundant in our food chain. There is none in corn oil and very little in soy oil, the two most widely used food oils. Therefore, nearly all the early research with polyunsaturated oils utilized omega-6 fatty acids, predominantly as linoleic acid.

    Fish oils were neglected out of ignorance or because the investigators chose to pass over these cholesterol-containing oils. Concern eventually developed over the close association between increasing incidence of mammary tumors and high intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. After some years, researchers finally turned their investigations to the interrelationship between dietary omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

    FATTY ACID METABOLIC PATHWAYS

    The following diagram shows in detail the pathways for the production and use of fatty acids in the body. In the figure the metabolic pathways (running left to right) for four fatty acids types are shown (top - Omega-3, second - Omega-6, third - Omega-9, bottom - Omega-7). Notice that only the omega-3 and omega-6 oils are considered to be essential fatty acids because they cannot be made in the body. This means they must come from food.

    essential fatty acids Figure 2 - fatty acid metabolism pathways in the body

    The diagram shows a series of enzyme induced reactions that either add a double bond or two additional carbon/hydrogen pairs to the fatty acid. The enzymes that make this happen are called desaturase and elongase. The desaturase enzymes are given a number for the carbon number (that the enzyme is working on) from the methyl end of the fat. These same enzymes work on all of the fatty acid types. For example, Delta 6 desaturase causes an additional double bond to be inserted into both alpha-linolenic (omega-3) and linoleic acid (omega-6) (as well as oleic acid and palmitoleic acids).

    In this way, the body is able to produce a wide variety of fatty acids that have their own unique effects on biochemistry. Some of these are more important than others. In particular, the omega-3 essential fatty acid eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), the omega-6 essential fatty acid dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and the omega-6 essential fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) are precursors for a class of chemicals called eicosanoids/prostaglandins that have far reaching affects on key body functions.

    EICOSANOIDS/PROSTAGLANDINS

    Eicosanoids are prostaglandins that affect many aspects of health both positively and, in some cases, negatively. All known eicosanoids and prostaglandins are formed from the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (omega-6, or n-6), alpha linolenic acid (omega-3, or n-3), their "enhanced" derivatives, and from the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oils.

    Prostaglandins are short-lived highly active, hormone-like chemicals that are found in every cell of the body. They are regulators of cell activity and essential for maintaining health. Each cell type or organ produces its own form of prostaglandin to carry out its functions. There are three types of prostaglandins: PG1, PG2, and PG3.

    Series 1 Prostaglandins (PG1), derived from gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), the active component of borage oil, has many beneficial effects: It makes platelets less sticky, lowers blood pressure by relaxing smooth muscles in the walls of arteries, increases loss of sodium and water, decreases inflammation and enhances immunity.

    Series 2 Prostaglandins (PG2), also derived from GLA, is used in "fight or flight" (stress) situations, - the fight against danger, or the flight from it. In modern lifestyles which are high in stress but low in physical activity, continuous production of Series Two Prostaglandins results in sticky platelets, high blood pressure, increased water and sodium retention, increased inflammation and decreased immune system capabilities.

    Series 3 Prostaglandins (PG3), derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the active component of fish oil, has beneficial effects. They block the detrimental effect of the Series 2 Prostaglandins, preventing them from being made in the body. As a result the platelets are less sticky, blood pressure is lower because the muscles in the walls of our arteries remain relaxed, loss of sodium and water by the kidneys takes place more effectively, inflammation response is decreased, and immune function is efficient.

    It is now known that the ratios of these dietary fatty acids are very important. Consumption of linoleic acid leads to production of the enhanced fatty acid, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Prostaglandins based on arachidonic acid exacerbate stress and inflammatory states, and suppress immunoprotective functions (i.e. resistance to disease). Too much linolenic acid and other omega-3s may cause excessive bleeding during injury, surgery, or childbirth. Large amounts of any of these unsaturated fatty acids in the diet without a compensatory increase in antioxidant nutrients (especially Vitamin E), can speed oxidative damage to tissues, resulting in accelerated aging while increasing the risk of degenerative diseases.

    Yet, a balanced ratio of both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet offers very positive health benefits. When omega-3 fatty acids predominate, the body will produce less arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Immunity improves and inflammation subsides.

    Essential Fats

    Unfortunately, our Western diet has been almost devoid of omega-3 fatty acids. Creating the optimum intake of omega 3-to-omega 6 unsaturated fatty acids has become, therefore, an issue of prime importance for anyone concerned with health. We need to evaluate carefully the amounts of linoleic acid (n-6) we consume relative to our intake of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and fish oils (EPA:20:5n-3 and DHA:22:6n-3).

    ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS - PATHWAYS

    The diagram in Figure 3 shows details of the omega-6 and omega-3 pathways. Pathway specifics indicate key eicosanoids (series 1 prostaglandins, series 2 prostaglandins, and series 3 prostaglandins), oil sources, and important nutrient cofactors that are needed for the reactions to take place.

    essential fatty acids Figure 3 - Essential Fatty Acids – pathways in the body

    The information is this diagram gives the clues we need in order to provide optimal types and amounts of omega-6 and omega-3. For example, I have chosen for my essential fatty acid product cold pressed borage oil as the best natural source of gamma linoleic acid (GLA). It contains 20% by weight — the highest amount found in natural oils.

    RESEARCH ON ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

    Work by Chapkin et. al. (see references 1–4 below) has identified the potent synergistic relationship between GLA, an omega-6 fatty acid, and the well-known omega-3 fatty acids. Chapkin has shown that, rather than simply the quantity of dietary omega-3s, it is the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids that is important in achieving full cardiovascular health and inflammatory control.

    Furthermore, Chapkin has identified the ideal ratio. His published work deals with the importance of mixed diets supplying both linoleic and linolenic acids. To underscore the importance of these two fatty acids, refined oil supplements rich in enhanced forms were used. "Enhanced forms" are fatty acids derived from the original. They are one or more steps closer to the actual eicosanoid. In the human body, alpha linolenic acid (18:3n-3) is eventually converted to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) is converted to gamma-linolenic (GLA, 18:3n-6) as its first enhanced form. Both enhanced fatty acids are precursors to eicosanoids.

    In Chapkin's research, superior health benefits were delivered by the mixed diet that supplied the eicosanoid precursors in a specific ratio. The balanced ratio of enhanced Omega-6 (GLA)-to-Omega-3 (EPA) fatty acids was 1:4.

    IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SCIENCE

    Based upon the science discussed above, I developed a product with the correct Omega-6 (GLA)-to-Omega-3 (EPA) ratio and with proper amounts. It is available to you as Hank & Brians Essential Fats Plus E from Health Products Distributors, Inc. (HPDI).

    Essential Fats Plus E

    ESSENTIAL FATS PLUS E IS A HIGHLY ADVANCED ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS SUPPLEMENT
    OFFERING SPECIAL BENEFITS:

    1. UNIQUE COMBINATION — Essential Fats (EPA, DHA, GLA) plus Vitamin E. This unique formula offers more than one type of Vitamin E (not just d-alpha-tocopherol) and balanced essential fats.
    2. BALANCED ESSENTIAL FATS— Many EFA supplements contain only omega-3s, but for optimal function the body requires a balance of omega-3 and omega-6 essential fats. In addition, our special formula provides a 4-to-1 ratio of EPA to GLA in order to achieve a balance you need for optimal health.
    3. FULL-SPECTRUM VITAMIN E — Tocotrienols and tocopherols in this formula are natural vitamin E substances derived from oryza rice bran oil and protect polyunsatured EFAs against free-radical damage both in the capsule and in your body. Many Vitamin E supplements contain only d-alpha tocopherol, which is only a single component of the full-spectrum Vitamin E in this formula.
    4. ULTRAPURE — Molecularly distilled oils of extremely high-purity containing no PCBs, heavy metals, or oxidized contaminants. Free of excipients, additives, and common food allergens!

    COMPOSITION: Six softgel capsules provides the following percentages of the Daily Value.

    NUTRIENT AMOUNT % Daily Value†
    EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid 20:5 omega 3)
    (from 2,000 mg of purified fish oils)
    360 mg *
    DHA (docosahexaenoic Acid 22:6 omega 3)
    (from 2,000 mg of purified fish oils)
    240 mg *
    GLA (Gamma Linolenic Acid 18:3 omega 6)
    (from 450 mg of cold pressed borage seed oil)
    90 mg *
    Vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol) (from 180 mg of Oryza rice bran oil) 24 IU 81%
    Mixed Tocotrienols (d-gamma, d-alpha, and d-delta)
    (from 180 mg of Oryza rice bran oil)
    28.8 mg *

    * No established Daily Value
    † Daily Values based on a 2,000 calorie diet

    IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

    Below we provide some of the functions and benefits obtained when by diet or supplementation the correct ratios and amounts of essential fatty acids are consumed.

    • Regulate steroid production and hormone synthesis
    • Regulate pressure in the eyes, joints, and blood vessels
    • Regulate response to pain, inflammation, and swelling
    • Mediate Immune Response
    • Regulate bodily secretions and their viscosity
    • Dilate or constrict blood vessels
    • Regulate smooth muscle and autonomic reflexes
    • Are primary constituents of cellular membranes
    • Regulate the rate at which cells divide
    • Necessary for the transport of oxygen from the red blood cells to tissues
    • Necessary for proper kidney function and fluid balance
    • Prevent red blood cells from clumping together
    • Regulate nerve transmission

    GENETIC TESTING AND ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

    Please note that genetic testing for a wide range of genes and the enzymes they produce has indicated that essential fatty acids can be an important factor in helping the body overcome a variety negative gene variations. These negative gene variations include genes that relate to: 1) Inflammatory Response, 2) Exercise Performance, 3) Exercise Recovery, 4) Cardiovascular Fitness, 5) Body Composition, and 6) VO2 Max, Aerobic Capacity.

    We will discuss this more deeply in a future blog article.

    CONCLUSION

    The body is best protected from a range of health issues when we supply a mixed diet of both omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids. Studies show that we do not need to consume large amounts of fatty acids if the ratio is correct. These findings indicate that, for a typical human body, amounts of 90 mg GLA (18:3n-6) to 360 mg EPA (20:5n-3) taken daily will provide for the optimum production of the three major prostaglandins. These amounts are found in Hank & Brians Essential Fats Plus E.

    REFERENCES

    The following includes abstracts of Chapkin's published research on essential fatty acids.

    REFERENCE 1

    Chapkin RS Somers SD Erickson KL

    Dietary manipulation of macrophage phospholipid classes: selective increase of dihomogammalinolenic acid.

    In: Lipids (1988 Aug) 23(8):766-70

    Because alterations in the dietary content of fatty acids are an important method for modulating macrophage eicosanoid production, we have quantitated the levels of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in peritoneal macrophage individual phospholipids from mice fed diets (3 wk) with either safflower oil (SAF), predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage, (BOR) containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish (MFO) containing 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and borage/fish mixture (MIX) containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Dietary n-3 fatty acids were readily incorporated into macrophage phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI). The increase in n-3 fatty acid levels was accompanied by a decrease in the absolute levels of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 in PC, PE and PS. Interestingly, PI 20:4n-6 levels were not significantly lowered (P greater than 0.05) in MIX and MFO macrophages relative to SAF and BOR. These data demonstrate the unique ability of this phospholipid to selectively maintain its 20:4n-6 levels. In BOR and MIX animals, 20:3n-6 levels were significantly increased (P less than 0.05) in all phospholipids relative to SAF and MFO. The combination of borage and fish oils (MIX diet) produced the highest 20:3n-6/20:4n-6 ratio in all phospholipids. These data show that the macrophage eicosanoid precursor levels of 20:3n-6, 20:4n-6 and n-3 acids can be selectively manipulated through the use of specific dietary regimens. This is noteworthy because an increase in phospholipid levels of 20:3n-6 and 20:5n-3, while concomitantly reducing 20:4n-6, may have therapeutic potential in treating inflammatory disorders.

    Institutional address: Department of Human Anatomy School of Medicine University of California Davis 95616.

     

    REFERENCE 2

    Chapkin RS Carmichael SL

    Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on macrophage phospholipid classes and subclasses.

    In: Lipids (1990 Dec) 25(12):827-34

    This study examined the effects of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid alimentation on murine peritoneal macrophage phospholipids. Mice were fed complete diets supplemented with either corn oil predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage oil containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish/corn oil mixture containing 18:2n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, or fish/borage oil mixture containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. After two weeks, the fatty acid levels of glycerophosphoserines (GPS), glycerophosphoinositols (GPI), sphingomyelin (SPH), and of the glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE) phospholipid subclasses were determined. We found that mouse peritoneal macrophage GPC contain primarily 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl (range for the dietary groups, 24.6-30.5 mol %) and 1,2-diacyl (63.2-67.2 mol %), and that GPE contains 1-O- alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl (40.9-47.4 mol %) and 1,2-diacyl (44.2-51.2 mol %) subclasses. In general, fish oil feeding increased macrophage 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels while simultaneously reducing 20:4n-6 in GPS, GPI, GPE and GPC subclasses except for 1-O-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl GPC. Administration of 18:3n-6 rich diets (borage and fish/borage mixture) resulted in the accumulation of 20:3n-6 (2-carbon elongation product of 18:3n-6) in most phospholipids. In general, the novel combination of dietary 18:3n-6 and n-3 PUFA produced the highest 20:3n-6/20:4n-6 phospholipid fatty acid ratios. This study demonstrates that marked differences in the responses of macrophage phospholipid classes and subclasses exist following dietary manipulation.

     

    REFERENCE 3

    Fan YY Chapkin RS

    Mouse peritoneal macrophage prostaglandin E1 synthesis is altered by dietary gamma-linolenic acid.

    In: J Nutr (1992 Aug) 122(8):1600-6

    The ability of dietary gamma-linolenic acid [18:3(n-6)] to modulate prostaglandin biosynthesis in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages was determined. Mice were fed diets containing corn oil, borage oil or evening primrose oil or a mixture of borage and fish oils. After 2 wk, resident peritoneal macrophages were isolated and stimulated with unopsonized zymosan to induce prostaglandin synthesis. Borage oil, primrose oil and fish-borage oil mixture dietary groups (containing 25.6, 11.9 and 19.5 g gamma-linolenic acid/100 g fatty acids, respectively) had significantly (P less than 0.05) enhanced prostaglandin E1 synthesis (39.7, 29.4 and 73.0 nmol prostaglandin E1/mg protein, respectively) compared with corn oil-fed (containing less than 0.1 g gamma-linolenic acid/100 g fatty acids) animals, which synthesized less than 0.1 nmol prostaglandin E1/mg protein. Borage oil- and fish-borage oil mixture-fed mice had the highest biosynthetic ratio of prostaglandin E1/prostaglandin E2 (E1/E2 approximately 0.2). Macrophages from borage oil-fed mice synthesized the lowest amount of prostacyclin (198.7 nmol 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha/mg protein) compared with corn oil-, primrose oil- and fish- borage oil mixture-fed mice (379.7, 764.8 and 384.2 nmol 6-keto- prostaglandin F1 alpha/mg protein, respectively). In addition, borage oil-, primrose oil- and fish-borage oil mixture-fed mice had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher levels of dihomo-gamma- linolenic acid [20:3(n-6)] in membrane phospholipids (5.5, 3.5 and 5.7 mol/100 mol, respectively) relative to corn oil-fed mice (2.0 mol/100 mol).

     

    REFERENCE 4

    Fan YY Chapkin RS Ramos KS

    Dietary lipid source alters murine macrophage/vascular smooth muscle cell interactions in vitro.

    In: J Nutr (1996 Sep) 126(9):2083-8

    This study was conducted to compare the impact of dietary lipids on the ability of macrophages to modulate vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) DNA synthesis in vitro. C57BL/6 female mice were fed six different diets (6 mice/diet) containing 10% fat from corn oil (CO), borage oil (BO), primrose oil (PO), fish-corn oil mix (FC, 9:1, w/w), fish-borage oil mix (FB, 1:3, w/w), or fish-primrose oil mix (FP, 1:3, w/w) for 2 wk. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from these mice, stimulated with zymosan or vehicle, and subsequently co-cultured with naive mouse aortic SMC in the presence of 3H-thymidine to measure SMC DNA synthesis. In this co-culture system, macrophages were seeded on 25-mm culture inserts (upper chamber) and SMC were seeded on 35-mm culture dishes (lower chamber). The two cell types were separated by a semipermeable membrane with a 30-kD cut-off. When quiescent SMC were co-cultured with macrophages, only the PO and FP diet groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower SMC DNA synthesis compared with the control CO group whose diet contained no gamma- linolenic acid (GLA) or (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In contrast, when cycling SMC were co-cultured with diet-modulated macrophages, all dietary groups except for those fed FC had significantly lower (P < 0.05) SMC DNA synthesis relative to the CO group. Although the level of GLA in PO and BO diets was different (11.5 and 22.3 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively), these treatments exerted comparable inhibitory effects on SMC DNA synthesis. The FP treatment consistently exhibited the lowest SMC DNA synthetic profile among the six dietary groups irrespective of SMC growth conditions. These data suggest that BO and PO alone or in combination with fish oil influence macrophage/smooth muscle cell interactions in a manner consistent with favorable modulation of the atherogenic process.

    These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

    BOOKS

    1. Enig, Mary G. Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol. Bethesda Press, 2000.
  • NO DEATHS FROM NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS IN 2015

    Fred Liers PhD Orthomolecular News Service No deaths from supplementsEvery year, HPDI publishes several articles from the Orthomolecular New Service (OMNS). This month we share a news release from OMNS about the fact in 2015 there were no deaths caused by nutritional supplements, including vitamins, minerals, amino acids, homeopathics, or herbs.

    ===

    FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
    Orthomolecular Medicine News Service, January 3, 2017

    NO DEATHS FROM NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS, INCLUDING VITAMINS, MINERALS, AMINO ACIDS, HOMEOPATHICS, OR HERBS.
    SAFETY CONFIRMED BY AMERICA'S LARGEST DATABASE.

    by Andrew W. Saul, Editor

    (OMNS, Jan 3, 2017) There were no deaths whatsoever from vitamins in the year 2015. The 33rd annual report from the American Association of Poison Control Centers shows zero deaths from multiple vitamins. And, there were no deaths whatsoever from vitamin A, niacin, pyridoxine (B-6) any other B-vitamin. There were no deaths from vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, or from any vitamin at all.

    no deaths from nutritional supplements 2015 No deaths from supplements in 2015 according to US NPDS data.


    Not only are there no deaths from vitamins, there are also zero deaths from any supplement. The most recent (2015) information collected by the U.S. National Poison Data System, and published in the journal Clinical Toxicology (1), shows no deaths whatsoever from dietary supplements.

    NO DEATHS FROM VITAMINS

    Zero deaths from vitamins. Want to bet this will never be on the evening news? Well, have you seen it there? And why not?

    After all, over half of the U.S. population takes daily nutritional supplements. If each of those people took only one single tablet daily, that makes some 170,000,000 individual doses per day, for a total of well over 60 billion doses annually. Since many persons take far more than just one single vitamin tablet, actual consumption is considerably higher, and the safety of vitamin supplements is all the more remarkable.

    It was claimed that one person died from vitamin supplements in the year 2015, according to AAPCC's interpretation of information collected by the U.S. National Poison Data System. That single alleged "death" was supposedly due to "Other B-Vitamins." This was claimed back in 2012 as well, with no substantiation then, either. Indeed, the AAPCC report specifically indicates no deaths from niacin (B-3) or pyridoxine (B-6). That therefore leaves folic acid, thiamine (B-1), riboflavin (B-2), biotin, pantothenic acid, and cobalamin (B-12) as the remaining B-vitamins that could be implicated. However, the safety record of these vitamins is extraordinarily good; no fatalities have ever been confirmed for any of them.

    Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD, repeatedly said: "No one dies from vitamins." He was right when he said it and he is still right today. The Orthomolecular Medicine News Service invites submission of specific scientific evidence conclusively demonstrating death caused by a vitamin.

    NO DEATHS FROM MINERALS

    There were zero deaths from any dietary mineral supplement. This means there were no fatalities from calcium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, colloidal silver, selenium, iron, or multimineral supplements. Reported in the "Electrolyte and Mineral" category was a fatality from the medical use of "Sodium and sodium salts" and another fatality from non-supplemental iron, which was clearly and specifically excluded from the supplement category.

    NO DEATHS FROM ANY OTHER NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENT

    Additionally, there were zero deaths from any amino acid or herbal product. This means no deaths at all from blue cohosh, echinacea, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, kava kava, St. John's wort, valerian, yohimbe, Asian medicines, ayurvedic medicines, or any other botanical. There were zero deaths from creatine, blue-green algae, glucosamine, chondroitin, or melatonin. There were zero deaths from any homeopathic remedy.

    WHEN IN DOUBT, BLAME A SUPPLEMENT

    There actually was one fatality alleged from some "Unknown Dietary Supplement or Homeopathic Agent." This is hearsay at best, and scaremongering at worst. How can an accusation be based on the unknown? Claiming causation without even knowing what substance or ingredient to accuse is baseless.

    TRUTH: NO MAN, WOMAN, OR CHILD DIED FROM ANY NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENT

    If nutritional supplements are allegedly so "dangerous," as the FDA, the news media, and even some physicians still claim, then where are the bodies? There aren't any.

    REFERENCES

    Mowry JB, Spyker DA, Brooks DE et al. 2015 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 33rd Annual Report. Clinical Toxicology 2016, 54:10, 924-1109, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2016.1245421

    Data for vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and other supplements are presented in Table 22-B.

    The complete 187-page article is available for free download from https://aapcc.s3.amazonaws.com/pdfs/annual_reports/2015_AAPCC_NPDS_Annual_Report_33rd_PDF.pdfor download this and all previous AAPCC Annual Reports at http://www.aapcc.org/annual-reports/

    Nutritional Medicine is Orthomolecular Medicine

    Orthomolecular medicine uses safe, effective nutritional therapy to fight illness. For more information: http://www.orthomolecular.org

    Find a Doctor

    To locate an orthomolecular physician near you: http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v06n09.shtml

    The peer-reviewed Orthomolecular Medicine News Service is a non-profit and non-commercial informational resource.

    Editorial Review Board:

    Ian Brighthope, M.D. (Australia)
    Ralph K. Campbell, M.D. (USA)
    Carolyn Dean, M.D., N.D. (USA)
    Damien Downing, M.D. (United Kingdom)
    Michael Ellis, M.D. (Australia)
    Martin P. Gallagher, M.D., D.C. (USA)
    Michael J. Gonzalez, N.M.D., D.Sc., Ph.D. (Puerto Rico)
    William B. Grant, Ph.D. (USA)
    Tonya S. Heyman, M.D. (USA)
    Suzanne Humphries, M.D. (USA)
    Ron Hunninghake, M.D. (USA)
    Michael Janson, M.D. (USA)
    Robert E. Jenkins, D.C. (USA)
    Bo H. Jonsson, M.D., Ph.D. (Sweden)
    Jeffrey J. Kotulski, D.O. (USA)
    Peter H. Lauda, M.D. (Austria)
    Thomas Levy, M.D., J.D. (USA)
    Stuart Lindsey, Pharm.D. (USA)
    Victor A. Marcial-Vega, M.D. (Puerto Rico)
    Dave McCarthy, M.D. (USA)
    Joseph Mercola, D.O. (USA)
    Jorge R. Miranda-Massari, Pharm.D. (Puerto Rico)
    Karin Munsterhjelm-Ahumada, M.D. (Finland)
    W. Todd Penberthy, Ph.D. (USA)
    Jeffrey A. Ruterbusch, D.O. (USA)
    Gert E. Schuitemaker, Ph.D. (Netherlands)
    Thomas L. Taxman, M.D. (USA)
    Jagan Nathan Vamanan, M.D. (India)
    Ken Walker, M.D. (Canada)
    Atsuo Yanagisawa, M.D., Ph.D. (Japan)

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